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From the beginning of recorded history, and for thousands upon thousands of years, cultures across the entire world all believed the Earth was flat. Their various cosmologies and cosmogonies differed in slight ways but their overall geographies and astronomies were incredibly consistent and in fact virtually identical. The Earth was a stationary plane void of any motion or curvature, flat across its entire expanse except of course for hills, mountains and valleys. The North Pole was the magnetic mono-pole center-point of the flat Earth with Polaris, the North Pole star situated directly above. Polaris was the only motionless star in the heavens with all the other constellations revolving perfect circles over the Earth every night. The stars were divided into two categories known as the fixed stars and the wandering stars. The fixed stars were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to stay fixed in their constellation patterns night after night, year after year, century after century, never changing their relative positions. The wandering stars, what are today referred to as "planets," were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like patterns making both forward and retrograde motions over and around the Earth during their cycles.
The Sun and Moon were both of equal size and they too revolved over and around the motionless Earth as immortalized in the Chinese Yin Yang symbol. The Sun and Moon were much closer to Earth than supposed nowadays and each shined with their own unique opposite lights, the Sun's being warm, golden, drying, preservative and antiseptic, and the Moon's light being cold, silver, damp, putrefying and septic. The Sun and Moon as though connected to a magnetic maypole made alternating spiral journeys over and around the Earth every year. The Sun began its journey at the Tropic of Capricorn at the Winter Solstice where it made its fastest and largest circle over the Earth. For the next three months every day the Sun slightly narrowed its path and slowed its speed until by the Spring Equinox the Sun had spiraled its way from the Tropic of Capricorn to the equator. Then for the next three months again every day the Sun continued to slightly narrow its path and slow its speed until the Summer Solstice when the Sun made its smallest, slowest circle around the Tropic of Cancer. Once the Sun reached this innermost circle, like the ribbons and dancers around the maypole, the Sun would then begin its opposing, widening, quickening journey back to the Tropic of Capricorn. For the next three months every day the Sun slightly widened its path and hastened its speed until the Autumnal Equinox the Sun had spiraled its way from the Tropic of Cancer back to the equator. Then for the next three months again every day the Sun continued to slightly widen its path and hasten its speed until the Winter Solstice when the Sun made its largest, fastest circle around the Tropic of Capricorn and the annual journey began again.
The Moon had a similar yearly path revolving over and around the Earth but unlike the Sun, which constantly changed its speed to keep a consistent 24 hour day, the Moon's speed never changed so depending on its latitude the Moon was observed then as we can observe today to take approximately 24.7 - 25 hours per cycle. This is why at different times and places during each month we can see the Moon in the morning, afternoon or night. This is also the origin of old fairy tales such as the the Hare and the Hedgehog or the Tortoise and the Hare. The Hare, like the Sun, begins the annual race full of energy, excitement and ego, declaring himself the definite winner and gets off to an immediate head-start. Meanwhile, equally confident in his seemingly lesser abilities, the humble, slow and steady Tortoise Moon begins as well allowing the Hare to lead. As the race carries on, the cocky hare tires and slows down or takes a nap at which point the Tortoise overtakes him. This is analogous to the Moon reaching the Tropic of Cancer before the Sun each year and beginning its return journey. When the Hare reaches this half-way point of the race he realizes his lackluster attitude has resulted in being overtaken by the slower Tortoise and begins to speed up again. Then for the remainder of the race, the Sun picks up speed day by day gaining on the Moon, but ultimately losing as the slow and steady Tortoise reaches the finish-line before the Hare and wins.
So for ancient man, Earth and Polaris were the two immovable center-points of the Universe around which the Sun, Moon and other stars all revolved in a dome-like shape. Some cultures believed in a literal, physical solid dome or firmament to which the fixed stars were bound. Other cultures mythologized the axis mundi as the World Tree with Polaris at the center and all the other constellations forming the branches. In these flat Earth depictions the North Pole occupied the centerpoint, and "South" was all straight lines extending outwards from there. East and West were not straight-lines as is assumed nowadays, but were in fact circles just like all lines of latitude and the paths of the celestial bodies. The southern circumference of Earth was surrounded by a gigantic wall of ice 150-200 feet above sea-level holding the interconnected oceans in like a world cup. Beyond the ice wall, some cultures claimed a firm barrier existed through which no human could penetrate. Other cultures believed there were entire worlds and other civilizations existing beyond the Antarctic ice.
Currently, and for the past half century there has existed an International Antarctic Treaty preventing all independent exploration of Antarctica. Pre-approved guided tours exist which take visitors to a few coastal regions of Antarctica, but no independent exploration of the continent is allowed. Sailors like Jarle Andehoy have been caught attempting to explore Antarctica and threatened, turned around at gunpoint, fined, and jailed for violating this militarily enforced international treaty. As a result the public currently has no way to confirm or deny the seemingly fantastical claims of ancient man concerning what may or may not exist at the southern-most extremities of the Earth.
We can however confirm that this 200 foot ice-wall surrounding the southern circumference of the Earth most certainly exists. We can confirm that Polaris is indeed the only non-moving star in the sky. All the fixed stars indeed rotate perfect circles around Polaris while remaining stuck in their relative constellations night after night, year after year, century after century. The wandering stars or "planets" do indeed wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like paths when charted from a geocentric perspective. The Sun and Moon are indeed observably of equal size and revolve over and around us in daily cycles. Just as the ancients observed, the Sun's annual path does indeed travel from the Tropic of Capricorn at the Winter Solstice, to the Equator at Spring Equinox, to the Tropic of Cancer at the Summer Solstice, back to the Equator at Autumnal Equinox, and finally back to the Tropic of Cancer at Winter Solstice. The Sun's light is indeed warm, golden, drying, preservative and antiseptic, while the Moon's light is indeed cold, silver, damp, putrefying and septic. A thermometer placed in the Sun's light will always read warmer than a thermometer placed in the Sun's shade, while a thermometer placed in the Moon's light will always read cooler than a thermometer placed in the Moon-shade. Plant and animal substances exposed to sunlight quickly dry, shrink, coagulate and lose their tendency to decompose and putrify, whereas plant and animal substances exposed to moonlight will quickly show symptoms of putrefaction and decay.
Last but not least, just as the ancients espoused, the Earth is observably motionless to all our senses, and the horizon remains perfectly flat as far as the eye can see. Not only does the horizon remain perfectly flat 360 degrees around the observer, but whether at sea-level, the top of Mount Everest, 35,000 feet high in an airplane, or even at over 100,000 feet high, the highest any amateur hot-air balloon has ever flown, the flat horizon actually rises to the eye-level of the observer all the way up. On a globular Earth, no matter how large it is assumed to be, the horizon would remain where it was and the rising observer would have to tilt his head downwards further and further the higher they rose to see the steadily falling horizon. Many people will be shocked to know that to this day, every single scientific experiment ever devised to show the alleged motion of the Earth has failed to do so (or given evidence of the opposite, that the Earth is indeed motionless) and every attempt ever made to measure the alleged curvature of the Earth has failed to do so (or given evidence of the opposite, that the Earth is indeed flat).
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The first person in recorded history to ever claim that Earth was anything but the flat, motionless center of the universe was a Greek mathematician and philosopher named Pythagoras of Samos around 500 B.C. Interestingly enough, Pythagoras has also been touted by Freemasonic historians such as Albert Mackey, James Anderson, William Hutchinson and William Preston as being the very first Freemason! Presented more as a thought-experiment than a complete cosmology, Pythagoras posited that if the Earth were a spherical globe turning on its vertical axis once per day while revolving annually around a stationary Sun, that this model could also equally explain the cyclical motions of the heavenly bodies. This heliocentric model was taught to initiates at Pythagoras' Crotona school but never became popular or had an influence outside of Greece for another two thousand years.
A century later, another Greek mathematician and philosopher named Plato also espoused a spherical Earth cosmology, except he claimed the Earth globe to be the motionless center of the universe with the Sun, Moon and stars revolving around. His most famous student, Aristotle also wrote about this geocentric globe-Earth cosmology in his book "On the Heavens," offering three main points of evidence for his theory. Firstly Aristotle noted that when sailing away from an observer on shore, ships approaching the horizon disappeared from view hull before masthead and he postulated that this occurrence was due to the curvature of the Earth. Aristotle argued that the hull disappeared first because beyond the horizon the globe-Earth curved downwards causing the hull and eventually the masthead and entire ship to drop below the curvature. Today we can easily prove that Aristotle was incorrect in his assumption by using telescopes, binoculars and zoom cameras. Once a ship has completely disappeared beyond the horizon, modern technology allows us to zoom in and bring the entire vessel, hull and all, back into full view. This proves that ships do not disappear hull-first due to the alleged curvature of the Earth, and that the horizon line is in fact merely the vanishing point of perspective from a given observer's point of view, and not as Aristotle supposed, the beginning of the Earth's curvature. The horizon is subjective and varies in distance depending on the weather, the observer's height, and the strength of his eyesight or instruments. As noted previously, the horizon actually rises to the eye of the observer no matter how high he climbs, which also proves that the horizon line is not some objective point of curvature on a convex Earth, but rather the subjective vanishing point of perspective from a given observer's point of view.
Aristotle's second point of evidence offered for his spherical Earth theory was the Earth's round shadow cast on the Moon during lunar eclipses. To this day heliocentrists still offer this argument as proof of a spherical Earth, claiming that during lunar eclipses the Sun, Earth and Moon align in a perfect 180 degree syzygy like three billiard balls causing the Sun to cast the Earth's shadow onto the Moon. This clever but faulty assumption is rendered completely invalid, however, due to the fact that lunar eclipses have happened and continue to happen regularly when both the Sun and Moon are still visible together above the horizon! As early as the time of Pliny the Elder there are records of eclipses happening while both the Sun and Moon were visible in the sky, and continue to be recorded by the Royal Astronomical Society today. Obviously if the Sun and Moon are both observable simultaneously during an eclipse then they are not aligned in a 180 degree syzygy and it is therefore impossible that the Sun could be casting Earth's shadow on the Moon, and some other explanation must be sought. Another explanation, in fact, already existed in many cultures around the world, who posited that a third celestial body known as Rahu, or "The Black Sun" also existed equal in size to the Sun and Moon. This translucent dark body passed affront of the Sun and Moon during solar and lunar eclipses causing their lights to dim.
Aristotle's final point of evidence offered for his spherical Earth theory was the appearance of Polaris and other stars to gradually decline overhead as an observer travels southwards. He argued that the gradual declination and eventual disappearance beyond the horizon of certain stars and constellations as one traveled southwards was evidence that the observer was traveling over a convex curved surface. Similar to the ships disappearing over the horizon argument, Aristotle posited that the horizon line was the literal curvature of his spherical Earth, and the stars which declined and disappeared beyond it became invisible because a mass of curved Earth existed between them and the observer. In actual fact, however, the gradual declination of objects in the sky towards the horizon is merely a product of the law of perspective on plane surfaces. As any art student of point perspective knows, the human eye views the world in a pyramidal shape so that when looking down a long hallway, the floor appears to rise, the ceiling appears to sink, and the walls appear to narrow into a point at the center of the observer's view. Of course, the dimensions of the hallway remain constant for its entire length; The floor does not actually rise, the ceiling does not actually sink, nor do the walls actually close in; but to the human eye everything is perceived this way. Similarly when the Sun, Moon, airplanes or clouds appear to sink towards the horizon as they move away from us, they are not actually losing altitude and slowly approaching sea-level. They are in fact maintaining the same altitude except they are moving away from you and so the law of perspective makes them appear to sink.
A century after Aristotle, around 250 B.C. yet another Greek mathematician and philosopher named Eratosthenes made his claim to fame with a new alleged proof of the spherical Earth. Eratosthenes noted that at noon during the Summer Solstice in Syene, the Sun cast no shadow and the rays could reach straight to the bottom of his well, yet meanwhile in Alexandria a vertically standing metal rod cast a significant shadow. By factoring the length of the shadow with his assumed distance to the Sun, Eratosthenes recorded a measurement of Earth's circumference close to what heliocentrist astronomers still use today. The fact of the matter is, however, that Eratosthenes' calculations were made assuming the Sun to be millions of miles away so that its rays would fall perfectly parallel even in points as divergent as Syene and Alexandria. This faulty premise led to his faulty conclusion, which was eventually exposed upon the invention of the nautical sextant. Using sextants and plane trigonometry, by measuring the Sun's angle at two points on Earth simultaneously and factoring their distance from each other, the Pythagorean theorum reveals both the height and dimensions of the Sun. Using this method, the Sun and Moon have repeatedly been calculated to be approximately 32 miles in diameter, 3000 miles from the surface of the Earth. High altitude balloon footage has also filmed lighting hot-spots on clouds proving the Sun to be local and acting as a spotlight, and not a burning ball of gas millions of miles away as supposed by heliocentrists. After Eratosthenes, the globe-Earth theory completely disappeared from philosophical thought and recorded history for almost two millennia. Geocentric flat-Earth cosmologies continued to reign supreme, with even Eratosthenes himself, touted as the "Father of Geography," depicting the Earth as flat in his famous 194 B.C. map of the world. Crates of Mallus invented the first model globe-Earth around this time as well, but it failed to have any effect on the world at large.
Fast-forward to 1522 A.D. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan became the first person in known history to successfully sail around the world. This circumnavigation of Earth soon became and continues to be touted today as absolute proof of the spherical Earth theory. If Magellan was able to sail East-West around the entire world and return to his original starting point, surely the Earth cannot be flat and must be a globe, right? Wrong. Just as a compass can place its center-point on a flat piece of paper, trace a circle either way around, and return to its starting point, so can a ship or plane circumnavigate a flat Earth. The only kind of circumnavigation which could not happen on a flat Earth is North-South-bound which to this day has still never been done. Both the North Pole and Antarctica are military-enforced no-fly/no-sail zones due to restrictions originating from none other than the United Nations - the same United Nations that haughtily uses a flat Earth map in their official logo and flag.
In 1543, just days before his death, Freemason and Jesuit Nicolaus Copernicus published his book "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which revived the old heliocentric cosmology of Pythagoras and began the so-called Copernican Revolution away from a flat geocentric model and towards a global heliocentric model. Since his book claimed Earth to be a tilting, wobbling, spinning sphere revolving at break-neck speeds around a stationary Sun, it was initially met with due incredulity. Copernicus always countered this by claiming his theories were merely hypotheses and shouldn't be considered truth. In his book he even wrote, "The Pythagorean teaching was founded upon hypothesis and it is not necessary that the hypothesis should be true, or even probable. The hypothesis of the movement of the Earth is only one which is useful to explain phenomena, but it should not be considered as an absolute truth." Contemporaries of Copernicus such as Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe famously argued against his heliocentric model, positing that if the Earth revolved in an orbit round the Sun, the change in relative position of the stars after 6 months of orbital motion could not fail to be seen. Brahe wrote that the stars should seem to separate as we approach and come together as we recede. In actual fact, however, after millions of miles of supposed orbit around the Sun, not a single inch of parallax could be detected in the stars. As even Wikipedia notes, "The lack of any observable parallax was considered a fatal flaw in any non-Geocentric theory."
Copernicus' answer to this obvious problem was simple. He moved the stars so ridiculously far away from the Earth that even after millions of miles of supposed orbit around the Sun, no appreciable parallax could be detected. Copernicus simply needed to claim that the stars were trillions upon trillions of miles away, so then mathematically-speaking it would indeed be impossible to detect such slight parallax. Again, contemporaries of Copernicus argued against this convenient correction of his, arguing quite rightly that if the stars were trillions of miles away, then there is no way we could see them! Back-peddling once again, Copernicus claimed the reason we could still see stars trillions of miles away, was because they were not mere tiny points of translucent light in the night sky, but that stars were in fact gigantic gas balls billions of times larger than our Sun. So first Copernicus had to move the stars trillions of miles from Earth to explain away lack of parallax, and then he had to make the stars billions of times larger to account for why we should see them at all from such fantastical distances. Lastly he offered very specific distances and mathematical equations to solidify his theory, claiming, for instance, that he had accurately calculated the Sun's distance from Earth to be exactly 3,391,200 miles.
At the turn of the 17th century, Tycho Brahe under the patronage of Emperor Rudolph II began construction of the largest, most state-of-the-art astronomical observatory ever built. Upon hearing this, German astronomer and Freemason Johannes Kepler was determined to apprentice under Brahe. Even though Kepler championed Copernicus's widely disputed heliocentric globe-Earth theory, Brahe begrudgingly accepted Kepler as his apprentice based on his merit as an astute astronomer and mathematician. Brahe allowed Kepler access to the observatory, but guarded his data and findings from him completely, which frustrated and angered Kepler to the point of eventually culminating in a heated argument between the two of them resulting in Brahe kicking Kepler out. After much amends and apologizing, a year later Brahe finally forgave Kepler and accepted him back as apprentice. This time, however, Kepler was not content with his role as mere apprentice and soon proposed and secured a commissioned position on Brahe and Emperor Rudolph's new project, "the Rudolphine Astronomical Tables." Less than a month later, Tycho Brahe mysteriously dropped dead, and Johannes Kepler was given access to all of Brahe's coveted data, free-reign of the observatory, and become Emperor Rudolph's new official astronomer. Abundant circumstantial evidence and obvious motive have long fed speculation that Kepler actually murdered Brahe. Brahe was only 54 years old and in fine health when suddenly he became deathly ill and passed away. His official cause of death was reported as a bladder infection, but subsequent autopsies of his body revealed toxic quantities of mercury present on his moustache hairs which has led many researchers to conclude he was poisoned. The 2004 book "Heavenly Intrigue" suggested that Kepler had indeed murdered Brahe to gain access to his data. Kepler himself never denied this and he actually wrote, "I confess that when Tycho died, I quickly took advantage of the absence, or lack of circumspection, of the heirs, by taking the observations under my care, or perhaps usurping them." And so for the remainder of his life Kepler worked at Brahe's observatory for Brahe's employer using Brahe's data to further his Copernican theories which Brahe had always criticized. He modified Copernicus's calculations of celestial motions changing them from perfect circles to irregular ellipses, and even formulated a new updated distance of the Sun from Earth. While Copernicus had claimed positively the Sun to be 3,391,200 miles from Earth, Kepler assured the astronomical community that his new figure of 12,376,800 miles was the true distance.
A few years later, in 1608 the first telescope was invented, and by 1609 the next champion of Copernicism, Italian astronomer, Freemason and probable Jesuit Galileo Galilei, had purchased and built several of them. Galileo improved upon the telescope's design boosting the zoom capabilities from the original 3x up to 30x magnification and in 1610 made the most important alleged discovery of his career. With his 30x zoom telescope, Galileo claimed to have seen what he described as "three fixed stars, totally invisible by their smallness, all close to Jupiter, and lying on a straight line through it." After tracking these "invisible stars" for a while and noticing they appeared sometimes but not others, Galileo concluded that when he could not find them they must be hiding behind Jupiter and therefore they must not be "invisible stars" at all, but rather "invisible moons" orbiting Jupiter. His alleged discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was then touted as proof of the Copernican system, claiming that Earth must be a planet like Jupiter since both have orbiting moons. To this day, NASA claims to have special telescopes which can (on occasion) see these moons of Jupiter, just as Galileo claimed in his day to see (on occasion) with his special telescopes. Nowadays with modern telescopes and zoom technology, we can see the celestial bodies far closer and with far more clarity than Galileo could have ever hoped for. A 2016 Nikon P900 has 83x optical zoom and 332x digital, capabilities which put Galilean telescopes to shame, yet even with this level of magnification Galileo's alleged "invisible stars" orbiting Jupiter are nowhere to be found and impossible to detect.
Galileo and his fellow-Mason predecessors, acting more like true-believers of their heliocentric faith than legitimate scientists, were constantly guilty of inventing elaborate theories to support their foregone conclusion. This was never more evident than when Galileo presented his theory on the cause of tides in 1616. Cardinal Bellarmine had written Galileo the year before stating that "the Copernican system could not be defended without a true physical demonstration that the Sun does not circle the Earth but the Earth circles the Sun." Taking this to heart, Galileo hoped to show that the Earth's tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water as a point on Earth's surface sped up and slowed down due to Earth's alleged rotation on axis and revolution around the Sun. He argued that these hypothetical motions of his globular Earth were the cause of tides, and therefore the tides were proof of Earth's motion. Unfortunately for Galileo, his ideas were not accepted and easily proven wrong by his contemporaries who rightly pointed out that if his theory were correct, there would only be one high tide per day. Not only this, but if tides were caused by Earth's alleged motion, all lakes, ponds and other inland bodies of water should be similarly affected, yet they are not.
The next champion of heliocentricism was English mathematician and astronomer, knighted Freemason and Royal Society President "Sir" Isaac Newton. In 1687 Newton published his famous Principia Mathematica, which presented his idea of "gravity" to the world. The globe-Earth theory had long faced criticism for being impractical due to the natural physics of spinning spherical objects. Namely, that anything placed on their surface should immediately fall or fly off! How could people, buildings, and the great oceans remain perfectly stuck to a ball-Earth spinning faster than the speed of sound? The globe-Earth theory needed a force that could keep everything in place somehow; a force strong enough to keep the oceans stuck to the Earth, but weak enough not to sink a sailboat; a force strong enough to drag the entire atmosphere along with Earth's break-neck speed, but weak enough to allow birds and bugs to travel freely and unabated in all directions; a force so strong it could make rain fall upwards and plants grow upside down, but yet so weak that it could not be detected by any contemporary methods. Newton's postulate of "an invisible force able to act over vast distances" led to him being heavily criticized for "introducing occult agencies into the field of science."
Previous to Newton's theory of universal gravitation, the natural laws of density and buoyancy already perfectly and adequately explained the world around us. For example, the reason a balloon filled with helium rises into the sky while a balloon filled with air drops to the ground, is not because Newton's mystical pulling force has an aversion to helium, but rather simply because helium is lighter and less dense than the nitrogen, oxygen and other elements which compose the air around it, so it floats up, and conversely, a balloon filled with your carbon dioxide exhalation is heaver and denser than the air around it, so it falls down to the ground. If you blow a dandelion seed out of your hands, a substance just barely heavier than the air, it will float away and slowly but eventually fall to the ground. If you drop an anvil from your hands, something much heavier than the air, it will quickly and directly fall straight to the ground. This is not because gravity prefers anvils to dandelion seeds, but rather because it is the natural physics of buoyancy for objects less dense than the medium surrounding them to rise, while objects denser than the medium surrounding them sink. This is the reason raindrops fall down through the air and air-bubbles rise up through the water - because of their relative densities. It has nothing whatsoever to do with the mystical pulling force of spinning balls from Newton's imagination.
Newton's theory allegedly began when upon seeing an apple fall from a tree at Woolsthorpe, as though no one in the history of humanity up to that point had ever seen a falling object and wondered why it fell, he had a veritable scientific epiphany. The apple fell not because it was heavier and denser than the air around it, but rather because a force at the center of the spinning ball-Earth pulled it to the ground! Newton quickly got to work formulating his theory of universal gravitation which he used to explain not only falling objects, but also orbiting celestial bodies. Newton claimed that the Sun, Moon, Earth, planets and stars' gravity caused them to all orbit around the most massive nearby bodies. So not only was gravity fickle and selective about which objects it caused to fall and which it allowed to rise, gravity was also able to perform different functions on different scales. At the human scale, gravity allegedly caused people, buildings and oceans to stick to the Earth, while at the planetary scale, gravity allegedly caused moons to orbit around planets and planets to orbit around stars. Unfortunately Newton never addressed this, but the question remains, how and why would gravity cause both planets to orbit the Sun and people to stick to the Earth? Gravity should either cause people to float around in suspended circular orbits around the Earth, or it should cause the Earth, Moon and planets to all be pulled and crash into the Sun. The two effects are very different yet the same cause is attributed to both.
Furthermore, this magnetic-like attraction of massive objects gravity is purported to have can be found nowhere in the natural world. There is no example in nature of a massive sphere or any other shaped-object which by virtue of its mass alone causes smaller objects to stick to or orbit around it! There is nothing on Earth massive enough that it can be shown to cause even a dust-bunny to stick to or orbit around it. Try spinning a wet tennis ball or any other spherical object with smaller things placed on its surface and you will find that everything falls or flies off, and nothing sticks to or orbits it. To claim the existence of a physical "law" without a single practical evidential example is hearsay, not science. By now, however, you are likely beginning to see that these Freemasonic heliocentric priests are less interested in science and truth than they are in propagating contrived evidences for their foregone conclusions. In like manner, as Copernicus had claimed positively the Sun to be 3,391,200 away and Kepler had calculated it to be 12,376,800 miles away, Newton was quoted as remarking, "It matters not whether we reckon it 28 or 54 million miles distant for either would do just as well!" It appears he was correct, because the alleged distance to the heliocentrist's Sun has continued to increase by the millions until today where we stand with NASA's current official figure of 93 million.
In 1773 Captain Cook became the first modern explorer known to have breached the Antarctic circle and reached the ice barrier. This expedition offered an exciting chance to find proof of either the flat or globe Earth models because Captain Cook intended to sail completely around Antarctica looking for inlets through the ice-wall. If the Earth was indeed a globe 25,000 miles in equatorial circumference as the heliocentrists claimed, then a complete circumnavigation of Antarctica would be approximately 12,000 miles, and if the Earth was flat with Antarctica surrounding the entire circumference, a complete circumnavigation of Antarctica would have to take over 50,000 miles. During three voyages lasting three years and eight days, Captain Cook and crew sailed a total of 60,000 miles along the Antarctic coastline never once finding an inlet or path through or beyond the massive glacial wall! Captain Cook wrote: "The ice extended east and west far beyond the reach of our sight, while the southern half of the horizon was illuminated by rays of light which were reflected from the ice to a considerable height."
Later voyages by Captain James Clark Ross and Captain George Nares in the 19th century further confirmed Cook's findings. Ross's expedition spent 4 years and 5 months in heavily armored warships failing to find an entry point beyond the southern glacial wall, and Nares spent over 3 years circumnavigating Antarctica, taking an admittedly indirect course, but clocking in nearly 69,000 miles total! If Antarctica truly was the tiny ice-continent claimed by globe-Earth proponents, all of these expeditions would have ended years sooner. In addition to this, many Antarctic explorers including Captain James Clark Ross and Lieutenant Charles Wilkes using globe-Earth projection maps, wrote in their journals perplexed at how they routinely found themselves out of accordance with their charts, stating that they found themselves an average of 12-16 miles outside their reckoning every day, later on further south increasing to as much as 29 miles per day! These huge discrepancies experienced by explorers the further south traveled are usually attributed to increasingly strong storms, winds and currents, but if that were the case they should have just as often found themselves ahead of their reckoning, which they never did.
In 1783 the hot air balloon was invented and for the first time in recorded history people were able to float miles above the Earth's surface and see for themselves once and for all whether or not the Earth was flat or a globe. To many people's astonishment, as high as they rose, the horizon remained perfectly flat 360 degrees around them and rose to the level of their eyes all the way up. J. Glaisher wrote in his "Travels in the Air," that, "on looking over the top of the car, the horizon appeared to be on a level with the eye, and taking a grand view of the whole visible area beneath, I was struck with its great regularity; all was dwarfed to one plane; it seemed too flat." M. Victor Emanuel, another hot-air balloonist wrote that, "Instead of the Earth declining from the view on either side, and the higher part being under the car, as is popularly supposed, it was the exact opposite; the lowest part, like a huge basin, being immediately under the car and the horizon on all sides rising to the level of the eye." As stated previously, this is only possible on a flat plane.
It would be an entire century after Newton published his theories on gravitation before any scientific experiment was devised to attempt to prove its existence. In 1797, Henry Cavendish, the British scientist, Freemason, and wealthy grandson of the Duke of Devonshire, created an experiment which he claimed successfully proved the existence of gravity, measured its constant, and provided accurate figures for the exact masses of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and Planets. How did Cavendish achieve this quantum leap for heliocentric pseudo-science? He fixed two large lead balls on opposite ends of a torsion balance and hung them from the roof of his shed. By watching and recording slight motions of the contraption via telescope through his shed window so his mass would not affect the reading, Cavendish claimed to have proven gravity. Two small lead balls were hung near the large ones and any motion observed towards one another was touted as being the influence of gravity.
Now, the Cavendish experiment has been widely criticized by the scientific community because never in over two centuries since its creation has anyone been able to replicate it! Firstly, the balls simply do not always attract one another as they must for the so-called gravitational constant to be constant at all. Sometimes the torsion balance turns towards the balls and sometimes away as it is impossible not to give some slight tremulous motion when interacting with it. Henry even complained in his notes how often as he was performing the measurement the contraption was still in oscillation. Secondly, since his calculated force of gravity was 10^39 weaker than the force of electro-magnetism, from which all material objects are composed, there is no control for the experiment which can factor out and positively differentiate the alleged gravitational force, from the known stronger electro-magnetic force. In other words, the balls could simply be attracting each other through static electricity, a known force existing in all things, billions of times stronger than gravity, and impossible to control for the experiment. Even though no one could replicate Cavendish's findings, the experiment went down in history as a great success, and is still taught as veritable proof of universal gravitation in science textbooks today.
Half a century later, in 1851, a French scientist named Leon Foucault performed a similar experiment to Cavendish, but this time hanging a single ball from the ceiling, swinging it, and claiming all lateral motion observed to be proof that the Earth was turning beneath the pendulum! Since Foucault's original demonstration, these pendulums have regularly been swinging at museums and exhibition halls worldwide purporting to provide everlasting perpetual proof of the heliocentric spinning ball-Earth theory. The truth is, however, unbeknownst to most of the duped public, that Foucault's pendulum is a failed experiment which proves nothing but how easy it is for pseudo-science to deceive the malleable masses. To begin with, Foucault's pendulums do not uniformly swing in any one direction. Sometimes they rotate clockwise and sometimes counter-clockwise, sometimes they fail to rotate and sometimes they rotate far too much. Just like the Cavendish experiment, scientists who have attempted to replicate Foucault's findings have conceded time and again that "it was difficult to avoid giving the pendulum some slight lateral bias at starting." In truth, the behavior of the pendulum actually depends on 1) the initial force beginning its swing and, 2) the ball-and-socket joint used which most readily facilitates circular motion over any other. The supposed rotation of the Earth is completely inconsequential and irrelevant to the pendulum's swing. If the alleged constant rotation of the Earth affected pendulums in any way, then there should be no need to manually start pendulums in motion. If the Earth's diurnal rotation caused the 360 degree uniform diurnal rotation of pendulums, then there should not exist a stationary pendulum anywhere on Earth!
Also in the mid-19th century, another Frenchman named Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis performed several experiments showing the effect of kinetic energy on rotating systems, which have ever since become mythologized as proof of the heliocentric theory. His "Coriolis Effect" is often said to cause sinks and toilet bowls in the Northern Hemisphere to drain spinning in one direction while in the Southern Hemisphere causing them to spin the opposite way, thus providing proof of the spinning ball-Earth. Once again, however, just like Foucault's swinging pendulums and Cavendish's hanging balls, sinks and toilets in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres do not consistently spin in any one direction! Sinks and toilets in the very same household are often found to spin opposite directions, depending entirely upon the shape of the basin and the angle of the water's entry, not the supposed rotation of the Earth. The Coriolis Effect is also said to affect bullet trajectories and weather patterns as well, supposedly causing most storms in the Northern Hemisphere to rotate counter-clockwise, and most storms in the Southern Hemisphere to rotate clockwise, to cause bullets from long range guns to tend towards the right of the target in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Again, however, the same problems remain. Not every bullet and not every storm consistently displays the behavior and therefore cannot reasonably be used as proof of anything.
In the late 19th century, mostly thanks to the experiments, books, and lectures of an English inventor and author named Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, a flat Earth renaissance began sweeping the world. Rowbotham's findings, beginning with his 1864 book, "Earth Not a Globe! An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in the Universe," caused quite a stir in the scientific community and thanks to three decades of his efforts, the shape of the Earth became a hot topic of debate around the turn of the 19th century. Dr. Rowbotham conducted several experiments using telescopes, spirit levels, and theodolites, special precision instruments used for measuring angles in horizontal or vertical planes. By positioning them at equal heights aimed at each other successively he proved over and over the Earth to be perfectly flat for miles without a single inch of curvature.
In his most famous series of experiments, Rowbotham traveled to Cambridge, England where there is a 20 mile canal called the Old Bedford which passes in a straight line through the Fenlands known as the Bedford Level. The water has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind and remains stationary making it perfectly suitable for determining whether any amount of convexity/curvature actually exists. If we were living on a ball-Earth, every pond, lake, marsh, canal and other large body of standing water, each part would have to comprise a slight arc or semi-circle curving downwards from the central summit. If the ball-Earth were truly 25,000 miles in circumference as claimed by heliocentrists, then spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downwards an easily measurable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance. This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water the Earth would have to curve 16 feet, 8 inches downwards from one end to the other, and/or dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak, depending where the measurement is taken.
Rowbotham tested first by standing in the water holding a telescope 8 inches above the surface, while his partner rowed away from him in a small boat with a 5 foot tall flag attached. If the Earth was indeed a globe 25,000 miles in circumference, by the time the boat reached Welney Bridge 6 miles away, the entire boat and flag should have been completely invisible hidden behind a 6 foot tall mass of curved water. In reality however, every time tested, the entire boat and flag remained visible from start to finish. In a second experiment Dr. Rowbotham placed seven flags along the edge of the water each one mile distant from the next with their tops positioned 5 feet above the surface and stood with his telescope behind the first. If the Earth was a globe 25,000 miles in circumference, each successive flag would have to decline a definite and determined amount below the last. The first and second flags establish the line of sight, then the third should fall 8 inches below the second, the fourth flag 32 inches below, the fifth 6 feet, the sixth 10 feet 8 inches, and the seventh flag should be a clear 16 feet 8 inches below the line of sight! Even if the Earth was a globe of a hundred thousand miles, an amount of easily measurable curvature should and would still be evident in this experiment. But the reality is not a single inch of curvature was detected and the flags all lined up perfectly as consistent with a flat plane.
In 1870 one of Rowbotham's supporters, an English scientist of the Royal Academy named John Hampden, offered a public wager of 500 pounds to anyone who thought they could prove the Earth spherical by repeating the Bedford Level experiment. Alfred Russell Wallace, a fellow English scientist, ardent evolutionist and personal friend of Charles Darwin, accepted Hampden's wager and the two met with referees to decide the matter at the Bedford Level. The original plan was to repeat Rowbotham's flag experiment, but after hours of attempting to align them one on each mile marker, upon looking through the telescope "they could not even judge which was which, let alone decide whether the line of sight along them was flat or curved. Heated debate ensued, an angry quarrel followed, and the experiment descended into a farce." They called it a day, but a week later reconvened, this time Wallace setting new perimeters for the experiment which had never been tested or approved by Rowbotham or Hampden.
Wallace hung a large calico sheet from the Old Bedford Bridge with a thick black line painted across its center and positioned his telescope six miles south at Welney Bridge at the same elevation. Then halfway between these two points, Wallace placed a long red pole topped with a marker disc designed to fall in line with the black painted marker and telescope. All of these he placed at a Masonically significant 13 feet 3 inches above the water. Wallace's plan was to view the marker disc and black line through the telescope, and if the middle marker appeared below the line of sight, this would be taken as proof of the water's flat surface, and if the middle marker appeared above the line of sight it would be taken as proof of Earth's curvature. Hampden immediately took issue with this new method of allegedly determining curvature but begrudgingly accepted to continue. When viewed through the telescope, the center marker fell a tiny bit below the telescope cross-hair, and the far marker on the bridge fell a tiny bit below that. This result was not expected by either party, but Wallace quickly claimed it proof that Earth was curving downwards, while Hampden claimed the results to be in accordance with the law of perspective over flat surfaces. This time an even more heated debate ensued until Wallace refused to speak another word with Hampden, gave him the silent-treatment, and even had the police escort Hampden him from his hotel room before leaving town the following day.
The referees for the wager decided in favor of Wallace and the money was given to him. In response, Hampden immediately published a 16-page pamphlet denouncing Wallace as a liar and cheat called, "Is Water Level or Convex After All? The Bedford Canal Swindle Detected and Exposed." Another fellow English author and flat-Earther, William Carpenter, also present during the experiment, wrote his equally scathing 30-page review of the swindle entitled, "Water Not Convex, The Earth Not a Globe! Demonstrated by Alfred Russel Wallace on the 5th March 1870" Hampden later took Wallace to trial and sued him for his 500 pounds. The court formally decided in favor of Hampden that the bet was invalid and returned his money in full.
Next Hampden immediately re-issued his challenge to Wallace, increasing the wager to 1000 pounds and inviting Dr. Rowbotham to attend. This time the experiment would be conducted as Rowbotham had originally done, standing in the water with telescope held 8 inches above the water observing a boat with a 5 foot flag attached sailing 6 miles away from Welche's Dam to Welney Bridge. When the day of the wager came, poor weather prevented them from completing the experiment so they postponed, met more bad weather, and postponed again. On their third and final attempt before heading home with the weather still overcast they attempted the experiment. Unfortunately shortly after reaching the half-way point the boat became indistinguishable beyond the haze and the bet was called off. The boat and flag were visible, however, for the entire 3 miles. In 2015 a group of flat-Earthers once again repeated Rowbotham's experiment at the Bedford Level with similar results. They detected no curvature and saw the boat beyond the half-way marker, but became obscured by poor weather before reaching the full 6 miles.
In 1871, after getting massive amounts of pressure from the public to address these claims from flat-Earth proponents, Royal Astronomical Society President George Airy devised an experiment which he hoped would once and for all prove Earth's axial motion and forever silence the rabble-rousing flat-Earthers. By first filling a telescope with water to slow down the speed of light inside, then calculating the tilt necessary to get the starlight directly down the tube, Airy planned to measure the speed of the telescope (and thereby the speed of the Earth) by extrapolating the amount of tilt needed to keep the starlight coming in straight. The experiment, however, would go down in history and forever be known as "Airy's Failure" because every time he repeated it, Airy found the starlight was already coming in the correct angle with no change necessary, proving that the stars move relative to a stationary Earth and not the other way around. Airy had meant to prove the heliocentric theory, but instead devised an ever-lasting proof of the geocentric model.
In 1887 American physicists Albert Michelson and Edward Morley performed an experiment to determine Earth's speed through space, or what was then called "the aether." By passing light through two pathways, one in the direction of the Earth's alleged motion, and the other at right angles to it, the light traveling with the Earth should have taken longer to return than light traveling at right angles to it. To the surprise of Michelson, Morley and the scientific establishment, however, no difference whatsoever was detected, even after repeating the experiment several times in different places. To attempt to patch up this glaring problem, the heliocentric establishment created the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction which actually had the gall to claim that the light pathway going the same direction as the Earth became physically shorter during the experiment so that the time to return became equal to the other pathway! The implications of Michelson and Morley's experiment were so detrimental to the spinning globe-Earth myth, that they were forced to concoct this ludicrous back-peddling explanation which even Arthur Miller denounced calling it "a physics of desperation."
After Samuel Rowbotham's death, Lady Elizabeth Blount, an English author, flat-Earther, vocal vegetarian and anti-vivisectionist founded the Universal Zetetic Society which attracted thousands of members and published a journal called "The Earth Not a Globe Review" for several decades. Many other prominent flat-Earthers of the time also continued doing their best to spread the word. John Hampden continued publishing his own work and reprinted all of Samuel Rowbotham's material. In 1885 William Carpenter published his famous "100 Proofs Earth is Not a Globe." In 1892 Alexander Gleason released his New Standard Map of the World AS IT IS which remains to this day one of the most accurate flat Earth maps ever created. He had hoped it would completely replace globes and Mercator maps the world over, but unfortunately his map's influence was short-lived. The next year in 1893 Gleason published his flat-Earth tome entitled, "Is the Bible From Heaven, Is the Earth a Globe, Does Modern Science and the Bible Agree?" which gave many flat Earth proofs and also explained his wonderful map. In 1899, the South African flat-Earth author Thomas Winship published his excellent work, "Zetetic Cosmogeny: Evidence that the World is Not a Rotating Revolving Globe but a Stationary Plane Circle."
1903 marked the beginning of airplane travel, which, had it been invented in Copernicus' era would have destroyed his spinning ball-Earth fantasy long before take-off. When hot-air balloons were first invented people were told the reason they cannot simply float in the air and wait for the spinning ball-Earth to bring their destinations to them, was because gravity somehow stuck the entire atmosphere and everything in it in place, dragging it along at 1000mph so uniformly that we can't see it, feel it, hear it, or measure it in any way. Once airplane technology evolved so that we could fly at comparable speeds to the Earth's supposed rotation, however, it became immediately apparent that the Earth and its atmosphere could not be constantly rotating 1000mph West to East.
Simply put, if the Earth were constantly spinning Eastwards 1000mph then airplane flight durations going Eastwards vs. Westwards would be significantly different. If the average commercial airliner travels 500mph, it follows that Westbound equatorial flights should reach their destination at approximately three times the speed as their Eastbound return flights. In reality, however, the differences in East/Westound flight durations usually amount to a matter of minutes, and nothing near what would occur on a 1000mph spinning ball Earth. For example, flights Eastwards with the alleged spin of the ball-Earth from Tokyo to LA take an average of 10.5 hours, therefore the return flights Westwards against the alleged spin should take an average of 5.25 hours, but in actual fact take an average of 11.5 hours.
Also of note, if Earth were a globe, there are several flights in the Southern Hemisphere which would have their quickest, straightest path over the Antarctic continent such as Santiago, Chile to Sydney, Australia. Instead of taking the shortest, quickest route in a straight line over Antarctica, all such flights detour all manner of directions away from Antarctica instead claiming the temperatures too cold for airplane travel! Considering the fact that there are plenty of flight to/from/over Antarctica, and NASA claims to have technology keeping them in conditions far colder (and far hotter) than any experienced on Earth, such as excuse is clearly just an excuse, and these flights aren't made because they are impossible.
If Earth was a ball, and Antarctica was too cold to fly over, the only logical way to fly from Sydney to Santiago would be a straight shot over the Pacific staying in the Southern hemisphere the entire way. Re-fueling could be done in New Zealand or other Southern hemisphere destinations along the way if absolutely necessary. In actual fact, however, Santiago-Sydney flights go into the Northern hemisphere making stop-overs at LAX and other North American airports before continuing back down to the Southern hemisphere. Such ridiculously wayward detours make no sense on the globe but make perfect sense and form nearly straight lines when shown on a flat Earth map.
On a ball-Earth, Johannesburg, South Africa to Perth, Australia should be a straight shot over the Indian Ocean with convenient re-fueling possibilities on Mauritus or Madagascar. In actual practice, however, most Johannesburg to Perth flights curiously stop over either in Dubai, Hong Kong or Malaysia all of which make no sense on the ball, but are completely understandable when mapped on a flat Earth. A casual study of other South Hemisphere flight paths and stop-over points will prove to even the most staunch skeptic the clear illegitimacy of globe map projections.
Building on Michelson and Morley's experiment, in 1913 French physicist Georges Sagnac again proved the existence of the aether and the stillness of Earth by using a beam-splitter to send light in opposite directions around a path, recombining them, then observing their interference fringes, first while stationary and then while rotating the entire experiment table 2 revolutions per second. The changes in interference patterns between the moving and non-moving trials proved that the light, and therefore the Earth, was stationary. In 1914 William Westfield wrote his geocentric classic "Does the Earth Rotate? No!" And when Gerard Hickson's masterpiece "Kings Dethroned: A History of the Evolution of Astronomy from the Time of the Roman Empire up to the Present Day" was published in 1922, the heliocentric theory of the universe was on its last legs. In 1925 the Michelson-Gale experiment again vouched for a stationary Earth, and it was clear to the establishment that they needed something big to bring public opinion back their way.
In 1916 a Jewish physicist named Albert Einstein had published his general theory of relativity, a brilliant revision of heliocentricism which in one philosophical swoop abolished the aether from scientific study replacing it with a form of relativism which allowed for heliocentricism and geocentricism to hold equal merit. If there was no absolute aetheric medium within which all things exist, then hypothetically one could postulate complete relativism with regard to the movement of two objects such as the Earth and Sun. In one philosophical leap, with no scientific evidence to support it, Einstein and the heliocentric establishment were thus able to sweep Airy's Failure, Michelson, Morley, Sagnac and Gale all conveniently under the carpet and pretend they didn't exist, simply by claiming that all motion in the universe was relative. By the late 1920s Einstein and his theories had been pushed so vehemently, the heliocentric theory began making a come-back, and Einstein was being touted as a genius and one of the greatest minds in history. Far from it, even he himself admitted when asked, "what is it like to be the smartest man alive?" responded by saying, "I don't know, you'll have to ask Nicola Tesla," a true genius who in no way supported Einstein's relativity or the heliocentric theory. Einstein was even caught lying when he originally claimed to have never even heard of the Michelson-Morley experiment, but later admitted that he had indeed created special relativity with the intent of abolishing the aether and nullifying the Michelson-Morley result.
By the 1930s an eccentric Christian flat-Earther named Wilbur Glenn Voliva was attracting wide-spread publicity around the world thanks to his American lecture tours and daily radio broadcasts from his personal station which could be heard all the way to Australia. Voliva famously founded and built Zion City in Illinois, a town of 6,500 people all of whom were Christian flat-Earthers. Zion City even had its own schools and churches which taught flat Earth cosmology. In the spirit of Rowbotham and Hampden, throughout his life Voliva offered an open-ended wager of $5000 to anyone who thought they could disprove the flat Earth. Until his death in 1942 there were no takers.
After the second World War, Operation Paperclip brought hundreds of top German rocket scientists and physicists into the United States and beginning in the late fifties employed them in NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Meanwhile the Russian space program was also forming and a so-called "Space Race" between America and Russia ensued. The “geostationary communications satellite” was first imagined in a 1945 proposal by Freemason science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke and supposedly became science-fact just over a decade later. In 1957 Russia allegedly launched the first satellite named "Sputnik" into low-Earth orbit, followed in 1958 by America's "Explorer 1."
Nowadays there are supposedly upwards of 20,000 such satellites constantly orbiting the Earth. They are allegedly floating around in the thermosphere where temperatures are claimed to be upwards of 4,530 degrees Fahrenheit. The metals used in satellites, however, such as aluminum, gold and titanium have melting points of 1,221, 1,948, and 3,034 degrees respectively, all far lower than they could possibly handle. People often even claim to see satellites with their naked eyes, but this is ridiculous considering they are smaller than a bus and allegedly 100+ miles away; It is impossible to see anything so small that far away. Even using telescopes, no one claims to discern the shape of satellites but rather describes seeing passing moving lights, which could easily be any number of things from airplanes to drones to shooting stars or other unidentified flying objects. The fact that they are "geostationary" means they would not appear to move through the sky anyway, but rather be perpetually stuck in the exact same place all day every day.
So-called “satellite” phones have been found to have reception problems in countries like Kazakhstan with very few cell phone towers. If the Earth were a ball with 20,000+ satellites surrounding, such blackouts should not regularly occur in any rural countryside and deep ocean areas. Also “satellite” TV dishes (which existed for years before "satellites" were supposedly invented) are almost always positioned at a 45 degree angle towards the nearest ground-based repeater tower. If TV antennae were actually picking up signals from satellites 100+ miles in space, most TV dishes should be pointing more or less straight up to the sky. The fact that “satellite” dishes are never pointing straight up and almost always positioned at a 45 degree angle proves they are picking up ground-based tower signals. Before satellites, radio, television, and navigation systems like LORAN and DECCA were already well-established and worked fine using only ground-based technologies. Nowadays huge fibre-optics cables connect the internet across oceans, gigantic cell towers triangulate GPS signals, and ionospheric propagation allows radio waves to be bounced all without the aid of the science-fiction best-seller known as “satellites.”
Also in the late fifties, a sign-maker from Dover, England named Samuel Shenton in the spirit of Rowbotham and Lady Blount's Zetetic Society, created IFERS, the International Flat Earth Research Society, and began giving lectures on television, in newspapers, to youth clubs and schools about our flat, motionless Earth. Shenton discovered the writings of the late 19th century flat Earth authors mentioned previously and made it his mission to spread the Zetetic message as far and wide as he could. With NASA's supposed satellite launches happening, people constantly questioned Shenton about satellites proving the globe-Earth, to which he would always reply, "does sailing around the Isle of Wight prove it is spherical?" When NASA claimed to have put the first man in space, Shenton said from the beginning that it was all photo and video trickery. When John Glenn supposedly orbited the world in 1963 Shenton even sent him a free IFERS membership with a personal message saying, "OK wise guy."
Shenton knew that John Glenn, two-time US senator and one of NASA's first astronauts, was a lying Freemason just like his heliocentric fore-fathers from Pythagoras to Copernicus, Kepler to Cavendish, along with most all of NASA's astronauts. Buzz Aldrin Jr. is an admitted, ring-wearing, hand-sign flashing 33rd degree Mason from Montclair Lodge No. 144 in New Jersey. Edgar Mitchell is an Order of Demolay Mason at Artesta Lodge No. 29 in New Mexico. James Irwin was a Tejon Lodge No. 104 member in Colorado Springs. Donn Eisele was a member of the Luther B. Turner Lodge No. 732 in Ohio. Gordon Cooper was a Master Mason in Carbondale Lodge No. 82 in Colorado. Virgil Grissom was a Master Mason from Mitchell Lodge No. 228 in Indiana. Walter Schirra Jr. was a 33rd degree Mason at Canaveral Lodge No. 339 in Florida. Thomas Stafford is a Mason at Western Star Lodge No. 138 in Oklahoma. Paul Weitz is from Lawrence Lodge No. 708 in Pennsylvania. C. Fred Kleinknecht, the head of NASA during the Apollo program, shortly thereafter actually became Sovereign Grand Commander of the Council of the 33rd Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction! NASA astronauts Neil Armstrong, Allen Sheppard, William Pogue, Vance Brand and Anthony England all had fathers who were Freemasons as well! The amount of astronauts known to be Freemasons or from Freemasonic families is astonishing. It is likely that more astronauts and people of key importance in NASA are affiliated with the brotherhood as well, but not so open about their membership. For there to be this many Masons, members of the world's largest and oldest secret society, involved with the promotion and propagation of this globalist heliocentric doctrine from its outset to modern times should raise some serious suspicion!
Before the first Apollo mission ever even cleared the launch pad, eleven NASA astronauts died in highly suspicious "accidents." Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White were all cremated together in an Apollo capsule fire during a completely unnecessary and dangerous test where they were strapped down and locked into a 100% oxygen chamber which incinerated the three of them to death in seconds. Seven other astronauts, Ted Freemen, Charles Basset, Elliot See, Russell Rogers, Clifton Williams, Michael Adams and Robert Lawrence died in six separate airplane crashes, and Ed Givens in a car crash! Eight of these deaths were in 1967 alone. So many astronauts coincidentally dying under such circumstances is highly unlikely, and lends credence to the idea that these were intentional hits by the Masons trying to find the right people to sell their hoax.
One of the most outspoken of the fallen astronauts was Gus Grissom. By 1967 Grissom had become increasingly irritated and vocally negative about NASA's chances of ever landing man on the Moon. He stated the odds were "pretty slim" and famously hung a lemon on the Apollo capsule after it repeatedly failed safety testing procedures. Grissom threatened to go public with his complaints about the LEM, and even told his wife Betty, "If there ever is a serious accident in the space program, it's likely to be me." Right after his murder, government agents raided Grissom's house before anyone had been informed about the fire or his death. They removed all his personal papers and his diary, never to be returned.
From 1969-1972 the Freemasons at NASA claimed to have landed six of their Apollo missions on the Moon. With this ingenious deception, a bit of rocket technology, a bunch of lying Freemasons and photographs taken through a round window, with this one psyop, NASA managed to convince nearly everyone on Earth that they live on a spinning ball. However, in the documentary, "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon," you can watch official leaked NASA footage showing Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong and Michael Collins, for almost an hour, using transparencies and camera-tricks to fake shots of a round Earth! They communicate over audio with control in Houston about how to accurately stage the shot, and someone keeps prompting them on how to effectively manipulate the camera to achieve the desired effect. First they blacked out all the windows except for a downward facing circular one, which they aimed the camera towards from several feet away. This created the illusion of a ball-shaped Earth surrounded by the blackness of space, when in fact it was simply a round window in their dark cabin. Neil Armstrong claimed at this point to be 130,000 miles from Earth, half-way to the Moon, but when camera-tricks were finished the viewer could see for themselves the astro-nots were not more than a couple dozen miles above the Earth's surface flying in a high-altitude plane. These images showing a globular world soon became the Freemasons most valuable tool in altering public perception about the shape of the Earth.
Since the original so-called "Blue Marble" image, NASA has provided the public with many more pictures and videos showing a globe Earth, touting veritable photographic proof that Pythagoras' 2500 year old theory was finally validated. When seen with a skeptical eye, however, professional photo-analysts have dissected several NASA images of the ball-Earth and found undeniable proof of computer editing. For example, images of the Earth allegedly taken from the Moon have proven to be copied and pasted in, as evidenced by rectangular cuts found in the black background around the "Earth" by adjusting brightness and contrast levels. If they were truly on the Moon and Earth was truly a ball, there would be no need to fake such pictures.
When NASA's images of the ball-Earth are compared with one another the coloration of the land/oceans and relative size of the continents are consistently so drastically different from one another as to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the pictures are all fake. NASA has many alleged photographs of the ball-Earth which show several exact, copy and pasted, duplicate cloud patterns! Cheeky graphics artists have even placed things like faces, dragons and the word "SEX" into cloud patterns over various ball-Earth pictures. One recent Pluto picture clearly has a picture of Disney's "Pluto" the dog layered into the background.
On a clear afternoon, during a waxing or waning Moon cycle, it is possible to see the blue sky right through the Moon. For centuries, stars and planets have often been seen and recorded even by the Royal Astronomical Society to have been seen through the Moon! If the Moon is translucent enough to see objects through it, it cannot be the solid, spherical planetoid claimed by NASA and modern astronomers. Samuel Shenton, President of IFERS was quoted before the Apollo supposed "Moon landings," stating that, "Stars have been seen through the Moon. The astronauts had better be ready to come right back because there isn't anything much to land on!"
Besides Shenton, many of the first people to unequivocally call out the NASA Moon landings as being a staged hoax were professional photographers. When the official NASA photographs of "the Moon" are closely examined it is clear that many were taken inside a studio using repetitive backgrounds, artificial lighting, wires and cranes. Award-winning British photographer David Persey, photo-analyst/historian Jack White, photographer/Nexus magazine publisher Marcus Allen, and many others all put their professional reputations on the line to expose NASA's so-called photographic "evidence.
None of the Apollo missions brought any extra studio lighting with them on the Lunar Lander, so the Sun should be the only light source on "the Moon" and in all pictures taken there. In that case, the light should only come from one direction and all shadows should be cast in the opposite direction. However, in dozens of official NASA photos there are shadows being cast in up to 3 directions simultaneously, often at up to 90 degree angles, which can only be the result of multiple light sources not present on the Moon. Several pictures even show overhead spotlights reflecting in astronaut's helmets and multiple lens flares originating from two or more light sources.
Analyzing several images from the 6 missions shows repeated background features (the exact same hills, dunes, and craters) being used over and over again in supposedly different places on the Moon, as well as visible foreground and backdrop lines indicative of a studio set. In images from Apollo 11, Buzz Aldrin can be seen wearing different color gloves and different length boots in pictures that were supposedly taken within minutes of each other. If Buzz was really in the vacuum of space in a pressurized spacesuit, he certainly would not have had the time or reason to de-pressurize and re-pressurize his suit just to make such fashion adjustments! Some pictures show the lunar rover with no tracks anywhere around it, others show rover tracks all over the foreground while it is yet to be unpacked and unloaded! A couple pictures even show what appear to be sneakers and a lady's heel tracks on the "Moon" in addition to the astronauts' boot prints!
Another glaring mistake is that none of NASA's images or videos show stars in the background as they should, just complete blackness, likely because exact star maps as they should appear from the Moon would be nearly impossible to fake. The testimony of different astronauts on different missions, in their autobiographies and interviews just muddies the waters even more, some of them bragging about the "astonishingly brilliant light of the stars" and others saying they "don't remember seeing a single star while on the Moon!" Such inconsistencies, and the fact that none of NASA's "Moon" pictures feature stars/planets in their appropriate positions, should raise a red flag that these astro-nots were not on the Moon.
Many pictures of the "Sun" on the Moon are clearly spotlights and not the Sun. Some images show studio lighting lens flares or studio lighting reflecting off a black background. One image clearly shows a shadow on the ceiling of "space" as the Lunar Lander lifts off. Many images show shadows of reticule crosshairs suspended in air over a print underneath proving them to be doctored and not originals as claimed. Images of the Lunar Lander supposedly on the Moon shows a pathetic 1969 attempt at creating "high-tech futuristic-looking" equipment using what appears to be construction paper, gold foil, scotch tape, and metal shower rods. The idea that the piece of junk shown in these official NASA photographs flew to the Moon and back is so ludicrous it's laughable. Close-ups of the Lundar Lander footpads show them without a speck of dust on them and without a burn print under it's 10,000 pound thrusters, like it was just gently set down in place. NASA scientists in their own documents were worried about the LEM falling into its own massive burn radius, yet there it sits with no burn print and spotless clean pads. Even the astronauts' boot prints made deep impressions on the "Moon dust" yet the Lander's 10,000 pound thrusters left not a trace, no blast hole, and no dust on the pads.
When the video evidence is examined, even more anomalies are found. In certain frames, light pings can be seen reflecting off overhead stage-wires attached to astronauts' backpacks. In one Apollo 16 clip an astronaut falls to his knees and is quickly jerked back up to his feet by what can only be an unseen wire hoisting him straight upwards. One of the more obvious video anomalies is how several Apollo missions show American flags flapping around in the non-existent space-wind. The "Moon" is supposed to have no atmosphere and so the flags should remain perfectly still but can often be seen moving quite boisterously. Another interesting video anomaly is discovered by playing NASA's "Moon" footage at 2X speed then watching the astronauts walking, running, jumping or cruising around on their little buggy. Without the speed adjustment there is a "low-gravity" illusion as the astronauts seem to float, drift, and glide slowly and smoothly along, but once they are seen at 2X speed it becomes clear that they are in "normal-gravity" walking, running, jumping and cruising at normal speeds! They simply reduced the play-speed by 50% in post-production and voila, instant "Moon" motion.
Not only is the Apollo video record fraught with fraud, but NASA claims the original Apollo 11 videos have conveniently disappeared from their records so no one can analyze them for authenticity! You heard correctly, they spent over $30 billion of American taxpayer money traveling to "the Moon," and then "lost" the video evidence! Those blurry, ghostly black and white images shown on TV were purposely lousy because NASA insisted at the time that all TV networks must broadcast directly from a big-screen display in their operations room, a mandate which all the major networks accepted, and so what the public saw was just a video of a poorly magnified video, and now it is impossible to watch the original! Not only have the Apollo 11 originals disappeared, but NASA claims to have lost all original audio tapes from the Apollo missions, and that their contractors have lost all prints/plans for the Lunar Rover, LEM Lander, and Apollo Ship Engines! It even recently came out that when curators at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum investigated their "Moon rock" personally given to them by Armstrong and Aldrin in 1969, they found that it was actually just a worthless piece of petrified wood from Earth!
In 1970 Freemason and Philosophy professor at St. Thomas' University, Leo Ferrari created "The Flat Earth Society of Canada," which he soon shortened to simply, "The Flat Earth Society." Unlike Samuel Shenton's International Flat Earth Research Society in every way, Leo Ferrari's Flat Earth Society treated the entire subject as a dead-pan joke, making a mockery of it, and even creating several intentionally false flat Earth arguments. For example, Leo Ferarri would always bring a pumpkin-sized rock with him during interviews and lectures claiming he brought the stone back from the edge of our flat Earth! He would say, with a huge smirk on his face, how his boat had fallen over the edge but he was luckily saved by hanging onto this rock. Clearly, treating our flat Earth in this tongue-in-cheek way discouraged people from taking the matter seriously, and creating this fake "Flat Earth Society" was the Freemason's way of mitigating Shenton's IFERS genuine threat to their global deception.
In 1971 Samuel Shenton passed away and the American former-airplane mechanic Charles K. Johnson took his place as president of IFERS. Charles and his wife Marjory, like Lady Blount and many of the original Zetetic Society members were not only flat-Earthers, but outspoken vegetarians and anti-vivisectionists. Charles and Marjory maintained a periodical called "The Flat Earth News" for many years where they printed articles about NASA's lies, geocentricity, flat Earth and vegetarianism. Unlike Leo Ferrari and his mock society spreading disinformation, Charles Johnson was a genuine voice speaking out against the evils of the world.
In 1974, when Johnson heard of Ferrari's budding organization, he decided to contact him and wrote a cordial letter requesting further information about his society, to which Ferrari never replied. Two years later Johnson wrote another polite letter saying, how he was "delighted by the prospect of a like-minded campaigner," and said how it was "a very happy day" when he learned of Ferrari's society. "I feel sure at the core we can't be too far apart in aims," Johnson wrote, "I do try to practice what I preach, to think and seek and search out reasonable ideas and concepts." He closed saying that "he could hardly wait" to hear from Ferrari and hoped very much he would please reply. After six months without a response, Johnson wrote one more time, explaining again his sole purpose to "enlarge his view" and "getting and holding onto the facts," which would benefit himself, and in time, the rest of the world. He requested a reply and a copy of Ferrari's FES magazine. In conclusion Johnson signed "thanks from the bottom of my heart," in advance, but warned that if Ferrari insisted on ignoring him once again, "I will then know for sure that you are some kind of enemy of the Flat Earth work." Eventually Ferrari did reply this time, but not with a message or magazine as requested, he simply enclosed an FES paid-application form.
Johnson investigated Ferrari's organization further and found that he was using "the flat earth idea as a gimmick to entertain and promote the atheistic society." From then on, Johnson worked hard to expand his IFERS and constantly for the rest of his life exposed Ferrari's FES, calling him a "false prophet guilty of muddying the waters of truth." Near the end of his life, tragically Johnson's house burned down along with all the flat Earth materials he and Shenton had collected over their lifetimes. Until his dying day, Johnson claimed the fire to be the result of arson by a NASA agent he had seen snooping around.
Apparently finished with their "Moon" landing propaganda, starting in 1976 NASA began faking "Mars" landings instead. To begin with, the "planets" (formerly known as "wandering stars") are not terrestrial Earth-like habitations capable of landing anything on! The Sun, Moon and stars are all simply luminaries, celestial lights relatively close to Earth, and not something tangibly solid that humans could ever walk on. This is painfully obvious to anyone with functioning eye-balls and a telescope or Nikon P900 camera, but NASA continues to this day to publish thousands of fake CGI images claiming to come from Mars.
Even assuming Mars was an actual spherical desert planet as NASA claims, it is impossible for them to have safely landed the probes based on their own trials and statistics. They say the surface pressure on Mars is only 3/10th of 1% the surface pressure on Earth, and equivalent to the pressure at about 23 miles above Earth. There is not enough air matter at that pressure, however, to provide any lift for opening and billowing out the parachutes NASA uses to land its Mars probes. No parachute ever devised has been able to successfully deploy at that altitude; they simply stream straight back then never fill the rest of the way down. Joe Kittenger's record highest, fastest, and longest parachute dive from the Earth's upper atmosphere had him free-falling from only 19 miles high for 15 minutes at 767mph and his drogue chute proved useless and offered no deceleration. Yet NASA would have us believe, for example, that Phoenix's parachute managed to somehow slow it down from 12,738mph to 123mph in just 2.86 minutes before its final landing. In other words, NASA is claiming to do something on "Mars" millions of miles away by remote control something that we have no evidence is even possible on Earth at significantly lower altitude and 16 times slower speed!
To this day NASA continues to fake Mars landings and more government space agencies around the world including Russia, China, Japan, France, India and others are following the same Freemasonic model of fleecing their populations of taxpayer money to fund programs that provide the public nothing but propaganda. NASA and other space agencies rocket launches never even go straight up. Every rocket forms a parabolic curve, peaks out, and inevitably starts falling back to Earth. The rockets which are declared "successful" are those few which don't explode or start falling too soon but make it out of range of spectator view before crashing down into restricted waters and recovered. There is no magic altitude where rockets or anything else can simply go up, up, up and then suddenly just start "free-floating" in space. This is all science-fiction illusion created by wires, green-screens, dark pools, some permed hair and Zero-G planes.
In 1998 NASA claimed to have sent up the first piece of the ISS, International Space Station. They have been caught however, time and again with air bubbles forming and floating off in their official "outer-space" footage. Astronauts have also been caught using scuba-space-gear, kicking their legs to move, and astronaut Luca Parmitano even almost drowned when water started filling up his helmet while allegedly on a “space-walk.” It is admitted that astronauts train for their “space-walks” in under-water training facilities like NASA’s “Neutral Buoyancy Lab,” but what is obvious from their “space bubbles,” and other blunders is that all official “space-walk” footage is also fake and filmed under-water.
Analysis of many interior videos from the “International Space Station,” have shown the use of camera-tricks such as green-screens, harnesses and even wildly permed hair to achieve a zero-gravity type effect. Footage of astronauts seemingly floating in the zero-gravity of their “space station” is indistinguishable from “vomit comet” Zero-G airplane footage. By flying parabolic maneuvers this Zero-G floating effect can be achieved over and over again then edited together. For longer uncut shots, NASA has been caught using simple wires and green screen technology.
In 2001 Charles K. Johnson died and having lost all his flat Earth material and correspondence in his house fire, the IFERS was officially finished. Leo Ferrari's farcical Flat Earth Society, on the other hand, continued operation as usual making a mockery of the flat Earth subject. In 2004 the reigns of FES presidency were handed over to Daniel Shenton (of no relation to genuine flat-Earther Samuel Shenton) who, true to Ferrari's example, maintains the Flat Earth Society website to this day, where they purport such fantastical purposeful disinformation as the flat Earth disc constantly rising upwards forever through the universe to account for gravity. Their sole purpose, as Charles Johnson correctly stated, is clearly to poison the well and muddy the waters of truth.
In 2008 teacher and author Eric Dubay (that's me) began a website and published a book titled The Atlantean Conspiracy which exposed among many other things, Freemasonry, the fake Moon Landings, Geocentricity, and even featured a quote from IFERS President Charles K. Johnson. At the time I had already read Samuel Rowbotham and William Carpenter’s old 19th century flat Earth books, and though personally still on the fence regarding the shape of the Earth, I was confident they were correct about the location (or Geocentricity) of Earth, so I wrote about it.
In 2009, after watching Alex Jones interview and praise several NASA astronauts on his show, I wrote an article and sent a message to him and his producers about the Moon Landing Hoax and included a link to Samuel Rowbotham’s flat Earth book for them to read. Alex even mentioned this on-air the next day and called me a “flat-Earther” who “thinks he’s covering up some Atlantean Conspiracy,” (the title of my book and website).
For the next several years I continued writing books/articles about various conspiracies and worked on building a huge social media presence. By making multiple accounts, adding as many friends/followers as possible, joining and posting to as many groups and pages as possible, over the course of a few years I began building up very large followings on Facebook, Google Plus, LinkedIn, Twitter, StumbleUpon, PInterest, Tsu and many other sites. To give you an example of their efficacy you can see here my main Google Plus account with over 135 million views and my secondary one with over 87 million.
In mid-2011, a professional artist, comedian and Hollywood actor named Math Powerland, claiming to also be an ex-NASA whistle-blower, created "TheNASAChannel" on Youtube. He made a few decent videos exposing NASA image fakery, but his channel certainly did not contain many flat Earth proofs or evidence, and there are more videos of him ranting about Axe deodorant, hookers on Tinder, his championship sexual prowess, and other irrelevant topics than there are actually exposing the flat Earth. For example, see his recent video entitled "The History of the Flat Earth," the same name and comparable length as the video you are watching now, but contains almost no content relating to history or the flat Earth, just him venting his various political frustrations. In short, anyone visiting his channel would NOT become a flat Earther and would be more likely turned off from the subject due to his manic ranting style and lack of factual content.
In November of 2014, after years of researching and writing, I released my book "The Flat Earth Conspiracy," the first pro-flat-Earth book written in nearly 50 years. I simultaneously released a "Flat Earth Conspiracy Documentary" on YouTube, began giving radio interviews, and published several influential articles on the subject. Within a very short space of time the "Flat Earth" keyword saw a 600% rise in activity and Google search results jumped from a few thousand to over 21 million! Soon after this, just as Johnson had experienced with Ferrari, I noticed a wave of disingenuous so-called flat-Earthers flooding into the movement with the obvious intent to muddy the waters.
For example, when I began writing my book “The Flat Earth Conspiracy” I came across Paul Michael Bales on Facebook, a recent flat Earth convert who had been collecting a library of old original flat Earth books and letters. Hoping to find some good reference material, I messaged him asking for recommended titles and he told me a few choice books to read. The full extent of our interaction consisted of a short Facebook conversation, yet curiously after my book was published and the flat Earth movement started growing, Paul began stating publicly that he was “the Morpheus to my Neo” and that he “taught me everything I know about the flat Earth.” He even made the ludicrous claim that my book was “plagiarized from old Facebook posts of his!” Matt Boylan a.k.a. Math Powerland also jumped in and had the gall to say that “my entire book was plagiarized from his information,” which is equally laughable considering he and “his information” are only mentioned in 2 paragraphs of my 252 page book. Needless to say, both of their claims are baseless and go to show how desperate they are to receive credit where it is not due.
You can also see from this Google analytics chart that the Flat Earth keyword had not made any significant change in 2011 since the launch of Matt’s YouTube channel, nor in late 2012/early 2013 when Paul claims to have gotten his start. The moment when the Flat Earth tides shifted and the exponential growth of the movement began was clearly around and after November 2014, the exact month when I exploded all of my flat Earth research onto the internet. In November 2014, I published the first pro-flat Earth book written in 50 years, “The Flat Earth Conspiracy,” I also published several popular articles on the subject, uploaded the most popular “Flat Earth Conspiracy” documentary on YouTube, began giving radio interviews, and soon re-started Charles Johnson’s IFERS (The International Flat Earth Research Society) and published my most successful book, "200 Proofs Earth is Not a Spinning Ball" which has now been translated into 12 foreign languages and read by millions worldwide. These simultaneous actions, my intentional exploding of credible flat Earth information onto the internet all at once, which I had been preparing for the entire year before, are undoubtedly the catalyst behind the exponential growth curve seen beginning here.
Later on, around March 2015, recent flat Earth convert Mark Sargent came out of nowhere, began uploading new flat Earth videos every day, uploading new interviews several times per week, got offered his own radio show, started being heralded by many as “the King of flat Earth,” and credited with starting the modern flat Earth revival. At first I was glad to have him on-board until the cracks began to show and the clear disinformation campaign began. Mark claimed the Moon and stars were “holographic projections” maintained by alleged “dome-builders” who keep us inside a “Truman show” enclosed structure among much other non-sense. He even lied about me in several interviews including one where he claimed that I promoted the idea of a constantly rising flat Earth to account for gravity, when in fact I constantly expose this false concept as being disinformation. Mark was, and continues to be, the Leo Ferrari to my Charles Johnson. In fact, Mark has even bragged several times about being a card-carrying member of Ferrari's farcical organization.
By New Years Eve 2016 our new IFERS had gained over 3,000 members and was receiving 50,000 hits monthly when it was suddenly and without warning or explanation deleted from the internet. As the administrators and myself quickly worked on salvaging our material and creating a new site, the obvious parallels to Johnson losing everything in his NASA-agent initiated house fire were noteworthy. Around the same time two disingenuous flat-Earth channels issued two fraudulent copyright strikes against me which I managed to overturn by filing legal counter-claims against them. YouTube itself also began a program of regularly unsubscribing old subscribers of mine, and lowering view-counts of popular videos. Shortly after that, Facebook also decided to jump on the "Eric Dubay censorship bandwagon" by deleting my account, all my pages, and giving my Atlantean Conspiracy group directly over to a team of Freemason shills who still administrate it to this day filling the group with nothing but death threats to me, pictures of Masonic goats, and ridiculous belittling memes. After re-registering for new accounts and accumulating my friends lists again, Facebook has now deleted two more profiles, and I am currently on my fourth still trying my best to spread the word!
In 2016 the movement continued to grow, with many more genuine flat-Earthers taking up the reigns and exposing the truth online, as well as many more disingenous shills continuing to poison the well with misinformation. The new IFERS began thriving with more monthly visitors than ever before. Many new flat Earth YouTube channels began creating and mirroring excellent content. Now at the turn of 2017 I am truly pleased with the rapid growth of this wonderful flat Earth movement, and encourage everyone to please help speak out, share this video, and spread the good word, as we look forward to a future where humanity is finally free from this grandest of all deceptions.
Great poem based on The History of Flat Earth video
Great poem based on The History of Flat Earth video
The History of Flat Earth, now in Portuguese!
A couple of people are asking about gyroscopes and their behaviour on the equator, plus the issue of stars in the Northern/Southern hemisphere appearing to move in difference directions.
Is there a some reference material on these and other questions?
Is there a some reference material on these and other questions?
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