Caucasians Around The Ancient World

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Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:39 pm

Posted by kostas on 04/24/2015


Aryan is an English language loanword derived from the Sanskrit.


People use old words without knowing what it means. 

It is the same in India, they use Sanskrit and everyone translates it differently. When I ask them (Sanyasis, Pandits) "do you know what asram means?" Answer: Ashram a hermitage, monastic community, or other place of religious retreat for Hindus. 


In Lithuanian as ramus means: I am calm (I am in peace), or Sanskrit word Dharmasala - Lithuanian Darna sala: harmony Island, and so on...

Now what does the word 'Aryan' mean?:


German : arisch
Russian : ариец - ariyets
English : aryan
Lithuanian : arijas, arejas- arias in Lithuanian language means agriculturist plowman or ploughman. The ancient people of Europe who peacefully expanded over the whole Eurasian continent with agricultural and spiritual knowledge and who gave Sanskrit and Vedas to India.

Here is Aryan flat earth observatory:  








A vast, shadowy circle sits in a flat wheat field near Goseck, Germany. No, it is not a pattern made by tipsy graduate students. The circle represents the remains of the world's oldest observatory, dating back 7,000 years. Coupled with an etched disk recovered last year, the observatory suggests that Neolithic and Bronze Age people measured the heavens far earlier and more accurately than scientists had imagined.

Archaeologists reported the Goseck circle's identity and age this past August. First spotted by airplane, the circle is 75 meters wide. Originally, it consisted of four concentric circles-a mound, a ditch and two wooden palisades about the height of a person in which stood three sets of gates facing southeast, southwest and north, respectively. On the winter solstice, someone at the center of the circles would see the sun rise and set through the southern gates.







The whole article you can find here: www.siloam.net/YOWUSA/CropCircles/Goseck/index.html

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:41 pm

Posted by kostas on 04/24/2015

Apr 24, 2015 2:25:31 GMT @tele said:
I've seen the orignial of the Nebra disc in a museum. 
Aryans fled out of India/Middle East. White Flight. Those who stayed back were outbred/slaughtered off. But you still see Aryan racial features in many Indians/Iranians.


You still believe in this Jewish Christian historical propaganda?

You can study little bit about Pre-Aryans in India: The Indus-Sarasvati Civilization, the civilization existed prior Aryas came.

We still have living language older than Sanskrit. We have archaeology sites, even same river names (ind.yamuna lit. nemuna ind. ris lit. neris and so on....) 


Vedas - translation: Russian: Vedat,vedaes,- to know, knowledge
                              Lithuanian: Veda,Vedi - to lead, leding others

 We know about the Aryans' religion from the Vedas, India's oldest sacred writings. The Vedas tell us that the Aryans worshiped a number of nature gods and offered sacrifices to them. But the earliest Veda also speaks of one god who has many names. In time, this god would be worshiped as Brahman, the source of all that exists.


Sanskrit names of gods: Vishnupati - Lit. Viespati. ,
                                         Devas  - Lit. Dievas, lot. Deus ( god )
                                    Vasudeva  - Lit. Visudievas (god of all)
                                         Agnih  - Lit. Ugnis ( god of fire)
                                    Prajapati  - Lit. Pradziapati ( god of the beginning )
                                    Svastika   - Lit. Svaikstikas ( god of light )
                                    Chaurirari  -Lit. Kauriraris ( deity of war and war-horses)
                                  
As you know, the Vedas were originally passed down orally. They were already centuries old when they were first written down. By then, the Aryans had been in India for 500 years or more.

It is interesting that before child sacrificing Jewish Christianity came with swords to Europe, we had common history and great Aryan civilization, and what do we have now: fake religion, fake history, fake earth globe, fake freedom ....... 

Quotes tagged as "lithuanian-language"


 

“As a matter of fact, no other language in the world has received such praise as the Lithuanian language. The garlands of high honour have been taken to Lithuanian people for inventing, elaborating, and introducing the most highly developed human speech with its beautiful and clear phonology. Moreover, according to comparative philology, the Lithuanian language is best qualified to represent the primitive Aryan civilization and culture".” 
― Immanuel Kant  


What Immanuel Kant says about Jewish problem I will write later.

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:41 pm

Posted by on 04/24/2015

Interesting! 
I know Lithuania was the last of our race in Europe to fall for Christianity and has preserved to this day its native culture in some form. 
Kant was from East-Prussia, right next to Lithuania. He must have had contact with Lithuanians quite often.

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:42 pm

Posted by kostas on 04/26/2015

Apr 24, 2015 11:51:01 GMT @tele said:
Interesting! 
I know Lithuania was the last of our race in Europe to fall for Christianity and has preserved to this day its native culture in some form. 
Kant was from East-Prussia, right next to Lithuania. He must have had contact with Lithuanians quite often.


Just found old documentary, I think that Immanuel Kant experienced something similar.

It is a film about man who goes to a Lithuanian village to find out true forgotten history. not from books written by oppressors. To anyone who is interested, it is worth watching to have a glimpse into old Aryan customs.

This movie about the roots of Lithuanian folk customs was filmed in Lithuanian Film Studio in 1982 but it was banned from cinemas until 1984 because people in charge of Central Jewish USSR television regarded it as "too ethnic." 

Lithuanian Folklore:  the Origins




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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:43 pm

Posted by kostas on 05/01/2015


But not far from the Chinese discoveries, in Russia, on the western edge of the Siberian Plain, dramatic evidence of an ancient tattoo culture was unearthed. And this time, highly publicized. In 450 BC, the Greek writer Herodotus wrote about Scythian nomads to the north, tribes of horsemen who ruled the Eurasian Steppe by horseback, their tattoos acting as 'a mark of nobility, and not to have them was testimony of low birth.' Skeptics assumed Herodotus was dreaming, and held to that opinion for over 2000 years.





Ancient Tattooed Aryan Mummies of Asia, China












The barren desert of China’s southern Tarim Basin has been the source of some of the ancient world’s most mysterious tattooed mummies.

Swastika the god of light.



Tomorrow 1 of may.
Here is video from 2010 parade in Vilnius with ancient swastikas:







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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:47 pm

Posted by on 05/01/2015

Nice find, Kostas. 
I know, blonde mummies are all over the world. Wherever there is ancient civilization, there is blonde/ginger mummies. "Cloud People" in Peru were still not outbread/slaughtered off by the Asiatic Hordes. Some North American Indian tribes also show high admixture with Aryans. Facial structure still recognizable and tall in stature. Swastikas in their culture. 

I believe, ancient America was either pure White until the Hordes came and/or there was an apartheid/segregation system and then "diversity" kicked in and the Aryans more or less voluntarily gave up their civilization.

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:47 pm

Posted by kostas on 05/04/2015


Gilad Atzmon's The Wandering Who? A Study Of Jewish Identity Politics

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Thinkforyourself on Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:48 pm

Posted by kostas on 10/08/2015
Old Lithuanians imagined Earth being flat, covered with huge stone dome - the heavens. Stars - are the holes in the sky through which the light shines in the dome above. That is interconnected with the ground so that a person could easily get to heaven.


Interesting that in Lithuanian language words and names to this day conveys the ancient knowledge.
 
For example:


Žemė - earth, derived from the words : žemai, žemas, žeme - down,low,ground.
Pasaulis - world, derived from the two words : po saule - under the sun.
Dangus - sky, derived from the words: danga, dengia -  cover,covered.
Visata- universe, derived from the two words : visa ta - only means all that.




To this day Lithuanians use the expression not even thinking what it means : dangaus skliautai - Sky dome.


Skliautai:   


COSMOLOGY OF THE ANCIENT BALTS


From: www.lithuanian.net/mitai/cosmos/baltai5.htm#bodies


Natural rythms and calendar

Relics of the lunar calendar are quite abundant in the Lithuanian and Latvian etnography. A custom remains to our day: upon seeing the new crescent Moon, one addresses it as kunigaikštis (a duke) or dievaitis (a young god) and begs for good health [18]. The four phases of the Moon are considered important for beginning of most farm work, especially, sowing and planting [31]. 

The magic numerals 3, 7, 9, 18 and 27, so frequent in the Lithuanian folklore, may be related to the archaic lunar calendar. It is quite probable that the oldest numeration in the history of mankind was trecimal. Strokes or dots which make the ornaments of the Neolithic ceramic artifacts are often grouped in triades. Number three and its multiples are found in many Lithuanian folk songs and legends. And even ritual formulas acquire their magic power only when repeated thrice. A drink boiled from a mixture of herbs gathered on an early morning of the Midsummer Day (summer solstice) from 3 fields in bunches of 9 different herbs, has particular magic properties. Historical records give evidence that the week of ancient Balts was 9 days long. Thus, the siderical month must have been divided into three parts. It is quite probable that a similar week is represented by a deer with nine horns, a popular character of the Lithuanian Advent songs. Trecimal numbers and crescent-shaped pendants have been found on a bronze necklace excavated in a 2000 years-old Baltic grave [32]. (Fig. 13). On each side of the artifact there are repeated groups of 3 and 9. 


Fig. 13 Fig. 13. A bronze necklace used by a Baltic woman 2000 years ago. 


The solar calendar appeared on the Baltic territories with the introduction of an agricultural economy, i.e. in the third millennium B.C. Flat amber discs divided to quarters by sequences of pits, found in the Nida and other settlements, are considered to be the first amulets of the solar magic, the rudiments of the annual solar calendar (division of a year into the seasonal quarters) [6], [13]. The texts of Lithuanian folk songs suggest a possible existence of a ten-month (300 days) calendar which might have embraced only the warm period of the year when all farm work was in progress. With the evolution of calendar, the lunar cycle was included into the solar year, which resulted in calendars of the solar-lunar type. 

The oldest Baltic cosmological schemes, calendars, found on the burial urns dated 600-200 B.C., are in custody of the Gdansk archaeological museum in Poland [33]. The splendid 12-month calendars engraved on pottery have been found near the borders of the Baltic area, in the present territory of the Ukraine which date back to the beginning A.D. [34]. In the 14th century the Grand Duchy of Lithuania used a solar-lunar calendar. The structure of this calendar was understood with the help of the so-called Gediminas Sceptre discovered in 1680 [35]. (Fig. 14). The sceptre indicates that the year started in April and normally had 12 months varying from 29 to 31 days. Every month started with the new moon. The months have unique Lithuanian names, expressed in symbols, which reflect natural phenomena and agricultural activities. 


Fig. 14 Fig. 14. The so-called duke Gediminas Sceptre calendar used in Lithuania in the 14th century. From right to left: general view of the sceptre, designations of 9 days in a week, designations of the 12 months. 


The Balts were familiar with the moments of equinox and solstice and marked them with festivals [36]. Summer solstice was celebrated as Rasos or Dew (Midsummer Day), which later on, with the introduction of Christianity, turned into St. John's day. Winter solstice almost coincides with Christmas. Spring equinox festival Gavėnia, under the Christian influence, turned into Užgavėnės (Shrove-tide), farewell ceremonies for the long winter. The autumn equinox festival Ilgės, marking the end of harvest, merged later on with the Christian All Saints' Day and became Vėlinės (The Day of Souls). 

Three hundred years ago Praetorius [37] recorded the Lithuanian names for the parts of day and night which can be considered a type of folk clock. Day and night were divided into 16 parts, starting with the early morning and ending late in the night. Later on, Daukantas [38] listed the names of 24 parts of day and night. Most of these names are still in use, although their practical significance is long lost. In Lithuanian there also exist separate terms to denote day (diena), night (naktis) and day & night (para).



6. Heavenly bodies and phenomena in the Baltic religion

In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania pantheistic religion was preserved till the end of the 14th century which means that Lithuanians were the last pagans in Europe. Due to this fact, many Baltic gods are described in folklore, chronicles and books which allows us to reconstruct details of the religion of ancient Balts. The mythology of the ancient Balts and the pantheon of their gods are important coomparative sources for better understanding other pantheistic Indo-European religions ([39], vol. 1, p. 153 and 527 and [40]). 

Historical records and folklore survivals have preserved the names and functions of about 120 Baltic gods and goddesses [41], part of them related to heavenly bodies and phenomena. The highest Lithuanian god, the creator of the world, was called Praamžius, Satvaras or Prakurimas, and sometimes simply Dievas (the God). The word Dievas has Indo-European connections since similar words can be found in other Indo-European languages: Dyaus in Indo-Aryan, Zeus in Greek, Deus in Latin, etc. The highest god of Old Prussians was Okopirmas. Probably, as early as in the Neolithic, the personified heavenly bodies appear: Saulė (the Sun) and Mėnulis (the Moon) as well as the planets, the Sun's daughters: Aušrinė (the morning Venus), Vakarinė (the evening Venus), Indraja (Jupiter), Selija (Saturn), Ziezdrė (Mars) and Vaivora (Mercury). Interpretation of names of the last four planets has been done by Slavėnas [42] on the basis of mythological materials. Moreover, several folk-tales and songs say that Žemė (the Earth) is the Sun's eldest daughter. It should be noted that, in contrast to many nations, the Lithuanians had mythical imagery of the Sun as a goddess and the Moon as a male god. The same applies to gender usage in modern Lithuanian: the Sun is feminine and the Moon masculine. For all the planets are given feminine names. In some folk-tales, Venus is called Marių Žvaigždė (the Sea Star) and Mercury is Aušrinės Tarnas (Morning Star's Servant). In Latvia, the morning Venus is called Auseklis and the evening Venus is Rieteklis. 

Saulė (the Sun) was imagined as a beautiful goddess of the sky who lived in a palace somewhere far east. Every morning she drives into the sky in a brilliant chariot of gold, copper or fire pulled by two white horses. In the evening the chariot goes down into the Baltic sea and Saulė changes the chariot into a golden boat which takes her across the sea. The boat is steered by the goddess Perkūnėlė who bathes the tired and dusty Saulė and sees her off, the next morning, refreshed and shining for a new journey through the sky. 

Mėnulis (the Moon) was a young god, dressed in silver attire, Saulė's husband. He had fecund, vitality-giving functions and was the guardian of night and time. Rich mythological imagery was connected with the four phases of the Moon, being considered of vital importance to animals, plants and the weather. One interesting tale tries to explain the solar eclipses: the Sun and the Moon are kissing each other; they cover themselves with a wrap, trying not to be seen by their daughter, the Earth. 

Myths speak of Vakarinė (the Evening star) who made the bed for Saulė, and about Aušrinė (the Morning star) who burnt the fire for Saulė and made her ready for another day's journey. Aušrinė was a maiden of remarkable beauty with golden hair and an image of the Sun on her crown. She wore a starry mantle with a moon-shaped brooch on her shoulder and was often considered to be even more beautiful than the Sun herself. 


Fig. 15 Fig. 15. The flag of Old Prussians with three main gods: Perkūnas, the god of thunder, in the center, Patrimpas, the god of spring and fertility, at the right, and Pykuolis, the god of the dead and underground, at the left. The script is in the Old Prussian (from S. Grunau, Preussische Chronik, Hrg. von W. Perlbach, vol. 1-3, 1876-1895). 




One of the most important sky gods was the god of thunder and all storms Perkūnas (the Thunder), fecundator and cleaner of the earth from the power of evil (Fig.15). He was imagined as a stern, bearded and powerfully-built man who traversed the sky in a fiery chariot, drawn by swift horses or as riding a fiery horse. His head was surrounded by a wreath of flames. In one hand he held lightning bolts and, in another, a heavy stone axe. Nine festivals devoted to Perkūnas were celebrated throughout the year starting in the early spring. Figurines of Perkūnas have been found in the Kernavė settlement, in the so-called Perkūnas house in Kaunas, etc. 
An interesting folk-song involves the Sun, the Moon, their daughter Aušrinė (the Morning Star) and the god Perkūnas. We present it as written by Balys [43]. Today the Sun and the Moon, the heavenly couple, are divorced and they never rise and set together. The cause of their enmity is explained in the following myth. The Moon married the Sun in the primeval spring. Because the Sun rose early, the Moon separated and walked alone. He met the Morning Star and fell in love with her. Then Thundergod Perkūnas became angry and punished the Moon by striking him with his sword. The Moon's face, therefore, often appears as cut in two pieces. The Perkūnas's word probably is a comet. 

Among the most important Prussian gods is Swayxtix or in Lithuanian Zvaigždikas, the god of light. In Lithuanian mythology, he is imagined as a horseman with a sword. 

Other deities related to celestial phenomena were the sunrise goddess Aušra (sometimes Auska or Brėkšta) and the evening dusk goddess Žėja. Atmospheric phenomena were portrayed as a family of wind gods: Vejopatis, Audrupatis, Bangpūtys, Gardaitis and Divytis. They lived in a cave on the bottom of the sea. 

To the present day Lithuanians and Latvians have preserved names denoting winds of eight (or even more) directions: 

In Lithuanian and Latvian 


N  Šiaurys, Žiemys, Žiemelis Ziemelis, Sivenis 
NE  Auštrinis, Audenis Austrenis, Tukšais 
E  Rytys, Saulinis, Žeminis Zemenis, Makars, Krasta vejš 
SE  Ožinis Azenis, Launadzis, Sausenis 
S  Pietys, Launagis, Peitvis Vasaris, Jedals, Tarpenis 
SW  Aulaukis, Šakšinis, Pilvinis Saksenis, Lenits, Udens vejš 
W  Vakaris, Jūrinis, Marinis Jūrenis, Vežgeris, Plūdenis 
NW  Suominis, Vakarinis Samenis, Luodis, Pūmenis



Other high Baltic gods should be mentioned: the great mother Žemyna (or in Latvian Zemes Mate), the goddess of the earth and fertility; Patrimpas, the god of spring and fertility, the guardian of rivers and springs; Autrimpas and Andojas, the sea gods; and Pykuolis and Velinas, the underground gods. In Latvia, other gods, related with the sky objects, are known: the highest god Dievu Dievs or Vecais Tevs, the god of the Sun and the morning light Usinš, Dieva Deli (God's Sons) and Saules Meitas (Sun's Daughters). 

For worship of gods and goddesses, the Balts erected temples or sanctuaries the remains of which were excavated in the mounds of Tushemlia and Gorodok on the Sozh River, now in Russia (3rd - 4th centuries) [44], on the Blagoveshchensk hill on the Desna River near Briansk, now in Russia (5th - 6th centuries) [34], on the Bačkininkėliai mound near Prienai, Lithuania (1st - 5th centuries) [45], etc. Of later times, well-known are the Romovė temple in Prussia, the Perkūnas temple in Vilnius, the supposed goddess of love Milda temple near Kaunas, etc. 

An analogy is easily drawn between the Baltic mythology and the mythology of Indo-Aryans, Greeks, Romans and other ancient peoples. Even the names of certain gods are similar. No doubt, the northern and southern nations communicated as early as 2000 B.C., as evidenced by finds of Baltic amber in Crete, Troy, Egypt and other countries of the Mediterranian. Evidence of a direct contact has been fixed by Hecataeus of Miletus and Pindar (5th century B.C.) and Herodotus (4th century B.C.) who mention the Hyperboreans who lived north of the Scithian tribes. The Hyperboreans were said to have the same religion as the Greeks. Their land was considered the birth-place of titaness Letona (Leto), mother of the twin-gods Artemis and Apollo. Apollo visited his motherland every year and spent the winter months there. Rybakov [7] after analyzing existing historical sources, concludes that the Hyperboreans of the 6th - 5th centuries B.C. were Baltic tribes. 



 Astronomical knowledge

Since the Zodiac is now viewed as the product of the Indo-European culture [46], it is quite probable that the Balts were familiar with it from a very early date. Lithuanians were well acquainted with the 12 Zodiacal constellations throughout which the Sun makes its annual journey. The Rivius chronicle [47] says that in the 13th century in the Šventaragis valley, at the confluence of the Neris and Vilnia rivers, there stood a Perkūnas temple which had 12 steps, each with an altar. Every month in succsession, holly fire was burnt on one of the 12 altars. The latest archaeological excavations in the basements of the Vilnius Cathedral completely confirm this information [48]. However, the ancient Lithuanian names of the Zodiacal constellations probably did not survive to our days. Their names, recorded in the 17th century by M. Sarbiewski [49], resemble translation from Latin. It is interesting to note that in Lithuanian the planets are called žvėrynės (from žvėris, the beast). This probably means that planets always move along the Zodiac, the beast circle [50]. 

Also, we have a collection of unique Lithuanian constellation names which were recorded in Lithuanian dictionaries by K. Sirvydas (C. Syrwid, 1620), P. Ruigys (P. Ruhig, 1747), K. Milkus (Ch. G. Mielcke, 1800), G. B. F. Nesselmann (1851), F. Kuršaitis (F. Kurschat, 1868-1874), A. Juška (A. Jushkevich, 1897) and W. Kalwaitis (1888-1894, published in 1910). Part of these names are still in use. These are:




Lithuanian name and translation

Latin name

Grįžulo Ratai (Big Cart) Ursa Major 
Perkūno Ratai (Thunder's Cart) Ursa Major 
Kaušas (Dipper) Ursa Major 
Grįžulo Rateliai (Small Cart) Ursa Minor 
Juostandis (Belt) Cassiopeia 
Kūlėjai ir Spragilas (Threshers and Flail) Perseus? 
Kelias į Bažnyčią (Path to Church) Andromeda 
Bažnyčia or Stalas (Church or Table) Pegasus 
Grėbėjos (Rakers) Taurus and Auriga? 
Sietynas or Sietas (Lustre or Bolter) Pleiades 
Dievo Darželis (God's Garden) Hyades 
Šienpjoviai (Haymakers) Orion 
Trys Sesutės (Three Sisters) Orion Belt 
Artojas (Ploughman) ir Jaučiai (Oxen) Leo and Gemini? 
Žagrė (Plough) Cancer? 
Bičių Spiečius (Swarm of Bees) Praesepe 
Valgio Nešėja (Food-bearer, faminine) Virgo 
Sėjikas (Sower) Bootes and Coma Berenices? 
Darželis (Flower Garden) Corona Borealis 
Dangaus Svarstykles (Heavenly Scales) Lyra-Cygnus-Aquila 
Paukščių Takas (Way of Birds) Milky Way 
Gervių, Žąsų Takas (Way of Cranes, Geese) Milky Way 
Vėlių Kelias (Road of Souls) Milky Way 



The surviving names of the brightest stars are not so numerous: Šiaurinė (the Northern star), Polaris; Perkūno Ožka (Thunder's Goat), Capella; Tikutis (no translation), also Capella; Mergelė (the Maiden), Spica and Skalikas (Hound), Sirius. There are some unidentified star names. 

Similar or the same names of some constellations are still being used by Latvians [51]. The great number and originality of names of constellations, stars and planets demonstrate that the ancestors of the Baltic nations were well acquainted with the starry sky. 

Other celestial objects and phenomena have specific Lithuanian names. Comets are called dangaus rykštės (the sky rods), Aurora Borealis are gaisai or pamėnai (the glow), circles around the Moon are drignės, meteors are krintančios žvaigždės (the falling stars). Every man was believed to have his own star in the sky. When the man dies, his star falls down. According to another version, a meteor is a mythological creature aitvaras that flies in the air bringing wealth to his owner. The rainbow (vaivorykštė or Vaivos juosta, drignis) is a frequent personage of mythological tales. The sky in Lithuanian is "dangus": this word originates from the verb "dengti" (to cover). 

It is quite possible that more unique Lithuanian constellation names survived to our day, since some constellations could have the same names as in Latin or Greek, i.e. pre-historic Indo-European names. These names could have been brought to the Baltics from Asia Minor or northern Mesopotamia 2500 B.C. by the people of the Corded Ware culture which would explain the appearance in the Lithuanian sky of Lion, Dolphin, Scorpio and other southern creatures. The strange frequency of lion (liūtas, levas) in the Lithuanian folk-tales, noted by Basanavičius [52], could be explained in a similar way. 

In adjusting the solar and lunar calendar cycles, accurate measurements in the sky and the use of special equipment were required. Properly educated people were also needed for the task. Historians such as M. Praetorius, A. Rotund, M. Stryjkowski and T. Narbutt present evidence that the motions of heavenly bodies were being observed by special prophets (men and women) called žvaigždininkas (a star man) or krivis (a priest). The observations were needed to construct the calendar, to foresee important astronomical events, and to appoint the time for sacrificial rites. Crusader chronicles mention the Prussian prophets called tullissones and ligaschones [53]. The prophets used to take part in burial ceremonies, they observed the riding of souls on horseback across "the middle of the sky". Cardinal Peter d'Ailli, who visited Lithuania in 1418, mentions that he saw there skillful astronomers who were managing the calendar [54]. 

Rudimentary observatories were erected in certain places. For instance, the Rivius chronicle [47] mentions a round tower for observation of stars and the Sun, built in 1263 by duke Gerimantas in the Šventaragis valley in Vilnius, near the Perkūnas temple. A pole observatory once existed on the Birutė hill in Palanga, near the Baltic sea [55] consisting of a horseshoe-shaped sand embankment with eleven dug-in posts. Each pair of posts marked some important azimuths of the Sun and the Moon at the moment of setting to the sea (Fig. 16). Solar azimuths at the days of solstice and the Moon extreme azimuths in the Meton cycle are fixed. 



Fig. 16. A pole observatory on the Birutė hill in Palanga, near the Baltic sea (reconstruction 

  

Sometimes stones were used to mark the positions of heavenly bodies on the horizon. For instance, at the site next to the Purmaliai mound near Klaipėda, seven huge boulders, arranged to mark astronomical directions, have been found [55]. On the day of summer solstice, the Sun rose like a "golden crown" (quoted from a folk song) over the biggest boulder. Over other boulders it rose on the mornings of the equinoxes. Circles of stones and other regular stone configurations were common in the Baltics [56]. However, only their scarce remains are found. Most observatories must have been wooden and, naturally, did not survive. Some boulders with astronomical symbols are still present in territories of the ancient Balts (Fig. 17


Fig. 17. The signs of the Sun, the Moon and a star on the Valiulis boulder of three meters diameter in the Molėtai district, Lithuania.






In addition to having calendric significance, stone circles might have served also as instruments to determine the azimuth while burying the dead [57]. It is known that in the 1st - 4th centuries in central Lithuania the dead were buried facing directly towards sunrise (men) or sunset (women). Also, many mythological stones in Lithuania are called Mokas (from the word mokyti, to teach), as if in such places young people were trained to make astronomical observations.
 Conclusions

The described archaeological finds, folklore, mythology and linguistic data and ancient written sources allow us to conclude that already 4-5 millennia ago the people of Old Europe who were living to the East and South of the Baltic sea, the ancestors of the modern Baltic nations, did not differ much in their mythological views on the world structure from their contemporaries in southern Europe, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and northern Africa. The calendar needs and religious rites forced the most educated people to observe the sky, to follow its periodical changes and, thus, to predict important astronomical events: the phases of the Moon, the moments of sunrise, culmination and sunset at different times of the year, the solstice and equinox moments, to appoint the beginning of farm work and festivals. 

Since people did not know the true cause of the natural phenomena, the gods and fate were made responsible for everything. Living in harmony with the surrounding world, they accomodated to sometimes severe conditions of life and transferred their knowledge and experience through millennia, from generation to generation. 

Acknowledgment. The authors are grateful to G. Kurilienė for her help in preparing this paper for publication.



The concept of the World-Tree

Along with myths describing the origin of the world, its schematic symbolic representation appears. Many nations, especially Indo-Europeans, have the notion of the World-Tree. Some nations call it the Cosmic Tree or the Life-Tree. The vertical structure of the World-Tree, and thence the world model, as represented in the Lithuanian folk painting, was analysed in detail by Dundulienė [20], and Vėlius [21]. The World-Tree usually is shown as a powerful tree with wide spread branches, with its top reaching heaven and its roots going deep into the earth. The tree-top is the dwelling place of heavenly bodies and eagles, while in its branches other birds live; under the tree are men and animals and, still lower, is the dwelling place of snakes and other reptiles. From under the roots spurt springs of life and wisdom. Thus, the World-Tree represents the world as an indivisible entity, uniting the three spheres: the heaven, the earth and the underground. The mythical imagery of the Baltic World-Tree is probably a reflection of the holly oaks and ash-trees, as it may be concluded from the falk-tales [22]. 

The World-Tree is a widely spread image in the Lithuanian folk painting, and some hint of it is also found in the Lithuanian and Latvian folklore. It is frequently engraved or painted on the objects of daily use among peasants: dowry chests, cupboards, towel holders, distaffs, laundry beaters, crochet works, etc. (Fig. 5). Wood engravings of the World-Tree sometimes contain two segmental symbols of the Sun, surrounded by a circle of stroked squares, triangles and rhombs. The latter are symbolic imagery of tilled earth and sowed fields. The upper Sun shines in the daytime and gives warmths, while the lower one was believed to cross the underground lagoon from the west to the east in a small boat, bringing dew to grass and crops [23]. 


Fig.5 Fig. 5. The World-Tree (artist's painting according to the folklore information). 


The oldest grave monuments in Lithuania are wooden krikštai, made from a board incised in the form of a tree. They used to be erected at the dead man's feet, perhaps in a hope to make his access to the heaven easier. To the World-Tree imagery belong Lithuanian memorial crosses and wooden roofed poles (chapels), also. Such roofed poles used to be (and still are to our day) erected at farm-steads, roadsides and cemeteries. They may have originated from the ancient ritual poles at which sacrifices were offered to gods [24]. The idea of such sacral objects is to direct the path of the prayer towards the dwellings of gods. Very common are three-storied roofed poles, where each storey represents a separate sphere of the World-Tree [25]. 

Fig.6 Every pole has the following elements: (a) a metal top with the symbols of heavenly bodies; (b) a small chapel with a wooden statuette of a god; and (c) the lower part of the pole framed by snake-shaped supports (Fig. 6). The dwellings for Samogitian (a Lithuanian ethnic group that lives in western Lithuania near the coast of the Baltic sea) gods used to be erected on top of a pile of stones or fixed to a separate huge round boulder. The stone was a symbolic border between the living world and the undeground world of the dead [26]. 

Fig. 6. A roofed pole near the Molėtai Observatory in Lithuania. 


The upper part of every roofed pole is a filigree forge-work with symbols of heavenly bodies. In this symbolism we can distinguish the following ideas: the unity of the heavenly and earthly fire (the encircled cross); the ties between the Sun and vegetation (the sun rays ending in plant leaves); and the flow of time (the three phases of the Moon). Below the symbol of the Sun there is an image of the boat in which the Sun, having set in the Baltic sea in the evening, goes back from the west to the east, across the underground lagoon, in order to rise again in the morning for another day's journey across the sky. 

4. Religion and mythology of the ancestors of the Baltic nations

Along with roofed poles, symbolic representation of the Sun, Moon, stars and other celestial phenomena can also be identified in folk-art artifacts of wood and crochet pieces (Fig. 7). The same archetypes have ben preserved throughout millennia, which is confirmed by grave finds of amber, bronze and iron artifacts and also ornaments and crochet works used in the attire of the dead. In Fig. 8 the symbolic representation of some heavenly bodies and atmospheric phenomena is shown. 

[7]Fig. 7 A distaff decorated with symbols of the cosmological meaning. Fig. 8 


[8]Fig. 8 Symbolic representation of heavenly bodies and atmospheric phenomena used by the Balts. The symbols of the Moon and its phases in the ornaments of wooden, metallic and crochet artifacts imply the flow of time and are a first step to the calendar [9][27]. Of particular interest is the cyclic repetition of the three phases of the Moon alongside other symbols, observed in the Baltic woven patterned sashes. These sashes were used to girdle an infant at christening or an adult on certain occasions when the individual was extending the best wishes for the other member of the community. The sash symbolizes the continuous flow of time and offers wishes for a long life. This interpretation is strongly supported by the well-known Latvian Mara's sash (Fig. 9) which was made in the 18th century. It has 49 different symbols, which correspond to the number of the phases of the Moon in a year, thus is some kind of the lunar calendar [10][28]. In this calendar the year starts with the spring, i.e. with the beginning of the new life cycle of nature. The main holidays of the year are denoted by special signs. A Lithuanian version of such a sash exists, with 12 symbols. The sequence of symbols in a sash in Lithuanian is called _raštas_. The same word is used to denote the idea of "writing". Therefore, the ornament of a sash can also be understood as the remains of a pictographic writing which might have been used long ago [11][29]. Fig. 8



[12]Fig. 9 The Latvian Mara's sash (fragments). Along with the symbols of heavenly bodies and atmospheric phenomena, more complicated geometric patterns, cosmograms, are observed in woven sashes and also on the decorated Easter eggs (Fig. 10). In the centre of such a composition sometimes we see a square, the sacral space, one's own village or the native farm-stead. At times the square is stroked, which symbolizes the sowed land. In the Lithuanian folk songs this sacral space is called as _tėvelio dvaras_ (daddy's mannor). From the central square, four perpendicular arms, drawn in the form of a tree, stretch out to the four directions of the world, as a sort of projection of the World-Tree onto the horizontal plane. Square corners point to the other four directions which, in the Baltic area, correspond to the extreme azimuths of sunrise and sunset on the days of the solstice [13][27]. Fig. 8 

[14]Fig. 10 A collection of decorated Easter eggs. In the textile patterns such cosmogram is strongly geometrized and, therefore, less obvious. The Latvians call it _Auseklitis_ [15][30] (Fig. 11). This pattern has been chosen as a symbol of the Latvian national rebirth. Somewhat similar symbol, called _Laumės kryžius_ (the Witch Cross) has been used by Lithuanians for the protection of buildings from the evil spirits. Fig. 8 

Fig. 11 The Latvian cosmogram Auseklitis with astronomical interpretation of the world directions (Kletnieks [16][20]). Another cosmogram, also associated with the Sun's journey across the sky, is called _žirgeliai_ (the stallions). It is a triangle whose sides have bent extentions at the top. The origin of this symbol is related to the gable decorations of a Lithuanian house where the bent extentions closely resemble horseheads (Fig. 12). These are the mythical twin horses, _Ašvieniai_, that draw the Sun's charriot across the sky all the day long. In this the Baltic mythology shows a striking coincidence with the Indo-Aryan Vedic imagery (Aswins). This means that _žirgeliai_ may be a 3000-year old relic. When used in ornaments, this symbol may mean the world roof, i.e. the sky. Fig. 8 

[17]Fig. 12 The "twin-horses" cosmogram, a wooden gable of a Lithuanian house. 



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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Haze on Sat Aug 20, 2016 1:45 am

The proof of a pre-existing Aryan race before the Maoris is one of New Zealands biggest coverups. But there is proof , however, that such a race of red and blonde haired people did pre-exist the Maoris.

The proof is in the carvings, the symbols, the canoes, the nets, the weaves, plaids, mokos (facial tattoos) buildings, fortified positions, sculptured hills, trig marker mapping systems, canal and drainage systems, greenstone artefacts, oral traditions and ruined stone structures, such as standing stone circles, covering the length and breadth of New Zealand. A few centuries ago the former civilization was overwhelmed and annihilated by the Maori warriors and all possessions were taken over by the conquerors. Burial caves all over New Zealand contain the remains of red, brown or blond haired Indo-European skeletons.

New Zealand authorities have ordered that particular caves, known to contain non-Polynesian / Melanesian skeletons and artifacts, have their entrances covered & concealed... and in one instance, by bringing in a bulldozer.

There are still natives of New Zealand with fair skin and blonde/red hair. I listened to one such woman tell of her family history, passed down orally, that they had originally come from Persia but were driven out in a battle with a dark-skinned race. The Maoris say these people were already there when they arrived and they adopted all their traditions from them, including tatoos.

This red haired, fair skinned people are also present in Peru and perhaps also Easter Island, where Genetic analysis performed by Erik Thorsby and other geneticists in 2007 revealed genetic markers of European and Amerindian origin that suggest that the Rapa Nui had European and Amerindian contributions to their DNA during or before the early 1800s

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Kostas on Fri Nov 25, 2016 9:51 pm

Often I was thinking what life was like in Europe  when people lived in peace without war and madness, a friend sent to me interesting documentary film about archeologist Marija Gimbutas,  her findings reveal an ancient widespread culture which flourished throughout Europe between 6500 and 3500 BCE, in the era historians call the Neolithic. This civilization was radically different from images of kings, warriors, and conquering gods that previously dominated our view of the past. "This was a long-lasting period of remarkable creativity and stability, an age free of strife. Their culture was a culture of art." -- Marija Gimbutas  
if you put short feminism and jewhoax propaganda aside the story is quite interesting
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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Kostas on Wed Dec 21, 2016 9:24 pm

Give Him half a chance, and He will erect one right in your backyard. If you do not fix the roof on your Church, will He fix it? No, because it is not His Church. Come back in 1000 years (from Heaven or Hell). What will you see? Your Temple is rubble or even gone; God will have erected His Temple on its ruins....
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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

Post by Inferknite on Wed Mar 15, 2017 5:22 am

Stunning Photo...

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Re: Caucasians Around The Ancient World

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